• Leptospirosis is a disease that is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira Interrogans. It is a bacterial infection passed from animals to humans by way of contaminated urine. The bacteria penetrate mucous membranes or breaks in the skin,multiply in the bloodstream and carried to all parts of the body.
Causes of Leptospirosis
  • Leptospirosis is not only acquired from absorbing contaminated flood waters through cuts in the skin but also by swallowing the bacteria directly from water or through food. Although the disease is commonly associated with rat urine, infection can also come from animals like cattle, pigs, horses, dogs, and wild animals.


Outbreak of Leptospirosis

The largest recorded U.S. outbreak occurred in 1998, when 775 people were exposed to the disease. Of these, 110 became infected.

In the Philippines as of January 6 2012 the outbreak of leptospirosis was in northern Mindanao cities of Cagayan de Oro and Iligan that were devastated by flood and reported almost 300 cases and 15 deaths according to Cagayan de Oro City Health Office.

Signs and Symptoms

Leptospirosis can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

  • High fever
  • Headache
  • Chills
  • Muscle aches
  • Vomiting
  • Jaundice (yellow skin and eyes)
  • Red eyes
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Rash

Many of these symptoms can be mistaken for other diseases. In addition, some infected persons may have no symptoms at all.The time between a person’s exposure to a contaminated source and becoming sick is 2 days to 4 weeks. Illness usually begins abruptly with fever and other symptoms. Leptospirosis may occur in two phases:

  • after the first phase (with fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, vomiting, or diarrhea) the patient may recover for a time but become ill again.
  • if a second phase occurs, it is more severe; the person may have kidney or liver failure or meningitis. This phase is also called Weil’s disease.

The illness lasts from a few days to 3 weeks or longer. Without treatment, recovery may take several months..

Incubation Period

The incubation period usually 7 to 12 days, with a range of 2 to 29 days.


Leptospirosis can be diagnosed by its clinical manifestation culture of the organism examination of blood and CSF during the first week of illness and urine after the 10 day.

Generally, it is not necessary to confirm the diagnosis or wait for the result of the tests before starting treatment. The clinical assessment and epidemiologic history are more important. Early recognition and treatment is MORE important to prevent complications of the severe disease and mortality.

  • Penecilins and other B- lactam antibiotics(PCN at 2M units q6H IM/IV)
  • Teracycline(Doxycycline at 100mg q12H PO)
  • Erythromycin (500mg q12H PO)- if allegic to Penicillin
Nursing Management
Health teaching
  • Provide education to clients telling them to avoid swimming or wading in potentially contaminated water or flood water.
  • Use of proper protection like boots and gloves when work requires exposure to contaminated water.
  • Drain potentially contaminated water when possible.
  • Control rats in the household by using rat traps or rat poison, maintaining cleanliness in the house.
  • Isolate the patient and concurrent disinfection of soiled articles.
  • Stringent community-wide rat eradication program.Remove rubbish from work and domestic environment to reduce rodent population.
  • Report all cases of leptospirosis.
  • Investigation of contacts and source of infection
  • Chemoprophylaxis can be done in a group of high risk infected hosts.

References and Sources :
Public Health Nursing in the Philippines 10 edition
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Leptospirosis)

Guidelines of Leptospirosis


Welcome to your MSN Exam for Leptospirosis! This exam is carefully curated to help you consolidate your knowledge and gain deeper understanding on the topic.


Exam Details

  • Number of Questions: 15 items
  • Mode: Practice Mode

Exam Instructions

  1. Practice Mode: This mode aims to facilitate effective learning and review.
  2. Instant Feedback: After each question, the correct answer along with an explanation will be revealed. This is to help you understand the reasoning behind the correct answer, helping to reinforce your learning.
  3. Time Limit: There is no time limit for this exam. Take your time to understand each question and the corresponding choices.

Tips For Success

  • Read each question carefully. Take your time and don't rush.
  • Understand the rationale behind each answer. This will not only help you during this exam, but also assist in reinforcing your learning.
  • Don't be discouraged by incorrect answers. Use them as an opportunity to learn and improve.
  • Take breaks if you need them. It's not a race, and your understanding is what's most important.
  • Keep a positive attitude and believe in your ability to succeed.

Remember, this exam is not just a test of your knowledge, but also an opportunity to enhance your understanding and skills. Enjoy the learning journey!


Click 'Start Exam' when you're ready to begin. Best of luck!

💡 Hint

The incubation period of Leptospirosis can span a range of days, usually not less than a couple of days and not more than a few weeks.

1 / 15

1. Nurse Madison is providing advice to a local farmer who recently had potential exposure to Leptospirosis. She reminds him about the importance of monitoring his health and informs him about the typical incubation period for Leptospirosis. Madison asks, "Can you recall how many days it usually takes from exposure to the onset of symptoms for Leptospirosis?"

💡 Hint

Patience can stretch beyond a few weeks, even into the double digits.

2 / 15

2. While working in the lab, Nurse Colin prepares a culture plate for possible leptospires growth. He recalls the recommended time duration for observing cultures of leptospires before discarding. What is that duration?

💡 Hint

The earlier the blood culture is taken after the onset of symptoms, the higher the chance of detecting and isolating the causative organism.

3 / 15

3. At the infectious diseases department, Nurse Isaac prepares to draw blood from a patient suspected of having Leptospirosis, intending to have it cultured for leptospires. He educates the patient about the ideal time to take this blood culture. Isaac asks, "Do you know when the blood culture should ideally be taken for isolating leptospires?"

💡 Hint

Leptospires, being bacteria, can infiltrate various body fluids during the course of the infection.

4 / 15

4. Nurse Ava, working in the infectious diseases ward, is educating a family about Leptospirosis which has affected their relative. She explains how the disease can be diagnosed. Ava then asks, "Can you recall in which body fluids leptospires can be detected in humans?"

💡 Hint

The chosen antibiotic is often used to treat a wide variety of infections and is part of the tetracycline group.

5 / 15

5. Nurse Thomas is preparing a group of travelers for a trip to a region with a high risk of leptospirosis. As part of the preventive measures, he considers administering a certain antibiotic. Which antibiotic is typically given for leptospirosis prevention?

💡 Hint

The immune response doesn't show instantly; think about a timeframe within a week but not at the beginning of it.

6 / 15

6. As Nurse Rachel monitors her patient with suspected infection, she explains that the immune response involves the production of antibodies. However, these antibodies aren't immediately detectable in blood tests after symptom onset. How long does it usually take before these antibodies can be detected?

💡 Hint

The presence of leptospires in the urine generally coincides with the period after the initial symptoms, but it takes more than a few days for them to be detectable.

7 / 15

7. At the city hospital, Nurse Liam is caring for a patient suspected of Leptospirosis. The patient asks Liam when he can expect a positive urine culture if he's indeed infected. Liam, in a bid to encourage active patient participation, poses the question back to him, "Do you remember after how many days of illness the urine cultures typically turn positive if infected with leptospires?"

💡 Hint

The inflammation triggered by a Leptospirosis infection typically influences certain lab parameters in a way that indicates increased rather than decreased activity.

8 / 15

8. During an infectious diseases conference, Nurse Ethan presents a case of anicteric Leptospirosis, discussing the typical laboratory findings associated with this phase of the disease. He throws a question to his peers: "Can you identify which of the following statements is NOT true about lab findings during the anicteric phase of Leptospirosis?"

💡 Hint

Think about the natural host of leptospirosis, it's not typically humans.

9 / 15

9. Nurse Allen is educating a patient who lives near a farm about the risks of leptospirosis. While discussing possible transmission routes, he mentions one that rarely leads to human infection. What is that route?

💡 Hint

Leptospirosis can be found in water or soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals. Certain activities and occupations could potentially expose individuals to such environments.

10 / 15

10. Nurse Jacob is conducting a community health education session focusing on infectious diseases. He dives into a discussion about Leptospirosis, emphasizing certain high-risk occupations and activities that may lead to increased exposure. He then asks the group, "Who among the following are particularly vulnerable to Leptospirosis?"

💡 Hint

Most alternative names for Leptospirosis reflect its association with specific environments or its distinctive symptoms.

11 / 15

11. During her educational session about Leptospirosis at a farming community gathering, Nurse Mia talks about the different names this disease is known by. She knows these alternative names often originate from the environments or symptoms associated with the disease. She poses a question to her audience, "Which among these is not recognized as an alternative name for Leptospirosis?"

💡 Hint

Observe the shape.

12 / 15

12. While in the hospital's laboratory, Nurse Janice is examining a specimen that might contain leptospires. She's been studying these bacteria and their properties to enhance her understanding. Which of the following is not an accurate statement about leptospires?

💡 Hint

Consider the typical mode of transmission of Leptospirosis, which is through the urine of infected animals. Where in an animal's body would the infection persist to allow for this method of transmission?

13 / 15

13. Nurse Sofia, a seasoned vet nurse, is giving a lecture to aspiring vet students about zoonotic diseases, specifically focusing on Leptospirosis. She discusses how the disease is preserved within infected animals. Sofia poses a question to the students, "In which part of the body does Leptospirosis typically persist in infected animals?"

💡 Hint

Flexibility in treatment options can be advantageous when dealing with this specific type of leptospirosis.

14 / 15

14. Nurse Kate is treating a patient diagnosed with anicteric leptospirosis, a form of the disease that doesn't involve jaundice. She must determine the appropriate medication for the condition. Which treatment should be considered?

💡 Hint

Leptospirosis, especially in its anicteric form, can cause various symptoms related to the eyes, often causing discomfort.

15 / 15

15. In the bustling clinic, Nurse Oliver consults with a patient recently diagnosed with anicteric leptospirosis. The patient has been experiencing some eye-related symptoms and is concerned. Oliver provides reassurance and discusses the common ocular manifestations of this form of leptospirosis. He asks, "Are you familiar with the ocular symptoms frequently seen in anicteric leptospirosis?"