- 250 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL injection
- Semisynthetic derivative of kanamycin with broad range of antimicrobial activity that includes many strains resistant to other aminoglycosides.
- Pharmacologic properties are essentially the same as those of gentamicin.
- Appears to inhibit protein synthesis in bacterial cell and is usually bactericidal.
- Effective against a wide variety of gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae, most strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and many strains of Proteus species, Serratia, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii, Acinetobacter. Also effective against penicillinase- and non-penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus species, and against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria.
- Primarily for short-term treatment of serious infections of respiratory tract, bones, joints, skin, and soft tissue, CNS (including meningitis), peritonitis burns, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs).
- Unlabeled Uses: Intrathecal or intraventricular administration, in conjunction with IM or IV dosage.
- History of hypersensitivity or toxic reaction with an aminoglycoside antibiotic.
- Safety during pregnancy (category C), lactation, neonates and infants, or use period exceeding 14 years old is not established.
- Impaired renal function; eighth cranial (auditory) nerve impairment; preexisting vertigo or dizziness, tinnitus, or dehydration; fever; older adults, premature infants, neonates and infants; myasthenia gravis; parkinsonism; hypocalcemia.
Moderate to Severe Infections
- Adult: IV/IM 5–7.5 mg/kg loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg q12h
- Child: IV/IM 5–7.5 mg/kg loading dose, then 5 mg/kg q8h or 7.5 mg/kg q12h
- Neonate: IV/IM 10 mg/kg loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg q12–24h
- Adult: IV/IM 250 mg q12h
- Use the 250 mg/mL vials for IM injection. Calculate the required dose and withdraw the equivalent number of mLs from the vial.
- Give deep IM into a large muscle.
- Verify correct IV concentration and rate of infusion with physician for neonates, infants, and children.
- CNS: Neurotoxicity: drowsiness, unsteady gait, weakness, clumsiness, paresthesias, tremors, convulsions, peripheral neuritis.
- Special Senses: Auditory–ototoxicity, high-frequency hearing loss, complete hearing loss (occasionally permanent); tinnitus; ringing or buzzing in ears;
- Vestibular: dizziness, ataxia.
- GI: Nausea, vomiting, hepatotoxicity.
- Metabolic: Hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia.
- Skin: Skin rash, urticaria, pruritus, redness.
- Urogenital: Oliguria, urinary frequency, hematuria, tubular necrosis, azotemia.
- Other: Superinfections.
- Drug: ANESTHETICS, SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANTS have additive neuromuscular blocking effects; acyclovir, amphotericin B, bacitracin, capreomycin, cephalosporins, colistin, cisplatin, carboplatin, methoxyflurane, polymyxin B, vancomycin, furosemide, ethacrynic acid increase risk of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.
- Peak: 30 min IV; 45 min to 2 h IM.
- Distribution: Does not cross blood–brain barrier; crosses placenta; accumulates in renal cortex.
- Elimination: 94%–98% excreted renally in 24 h, remainder in 10–30 d.
- Half-Life: 2–3 h in adults, 4–8 h in neonates.
Assessment & Drug Effects
- Baseline tests: Before initial dose, C&S; renal function and vestibulocochlear nerve function (and at regular intervals during therapy; closely monitor in the older adult, patients with documented ear problems, renal impairment, or during high dose or prolonged therapy).
- Monitor peak and trough amikacin blood levels: Draw blood 1 h after IM or immediately after completion of IV infusion; draw trough levels immediately before the next IM or IV dose.
- Lab tests: Periodic serum creatinine and BUN, complete urinalysis. With treatment over 10 d, daily tests of renal function, weekly audiograms, and vestibular tests are strongly advised.
- Monitor serum creatinine or creatinine clearance (generally preferred) more often, in the presence of impaired renal function, in neonates, and in the older adult; note that prolonged high trough (>8 mg/mL) or peak (>30–35 mg/mL) levels are associated with toxicity.
- Monitor S&S of ototoxicity (primarily involves the cochlear (auditory) branch; high-frequency deafness usually appears first and can be detected only by audiometer); indicators of declining renal function; respiratory tract infections and other symptoms indicative of superinfections and notify physician should they occur.
- Monitor for and report auditory symptoms (tinnitus, roaring noises, sensation of fullness in ears, hearing loss) and vestibular disturbances (dizziness or vertigo, nystagmus, ataxia).
- Monitor & report any changes in I&O, oliguria, hematuria, or cloudy urine. Keeping patient well hydrated reduces risk of nephrotoxicity; consult physician regarding optimum fluid intake.
Patient & Family Education
- Report immediately any changes in hearing or unexplained ringing/roaring noises or dizziness, and problems with balance or coordination.
- Do not breast feed while taking this drug without consulting physician.