Generic Name: ampicillin, ampicillin sodium
Brand Name: Ampicin (CAN), Apo-Ampi (CAN), Novo-Ampicillin (CAN), Nu-Ampi (CAN), Penbritin (CAN), Principen
Classification: Antibiotic, Penicillin
Pregnancy Category B
Dosage & route
- Maximum recommended dosage, 8–14 g/day (reserve 14 g for serious infections, such as meningitis, septicemia); may be given IV, IM, or PO. Use parenteral routes for severe infections; switch to oral route as soon as possible.
- Prevention of bacterial endocarditis for GI or GU surgery or instrumentation: 2 g ampicillin IM or IV with gentamicin 1.5 mg/kg IM or IV within 30 minutes of starting procedure. Six hours later, give 1 g ampicillin IM or IV or 1 g amoxicillin PO.
- Prevention of bacterial endocarditis for dental, oral, or upper respiratory procedures: 2 g ampicillin IM or IV within 30 minutes of procedure.
- STDs in pregnant women and patients allergic to tetracycline: 3.5 g ampicillin PO with 1 g probenecid.
- Prophylaxis in cesarean section: Single IV or IM dose of 25–100 mg/kg immediately after cord is clamped.
ADULTS AND PEDIATRIC PATIENTS
- Respiratory and soft-tissue infections:
- > 40 kg: 250–500 mg IV or IM q 6 hr.
- < 40 kg: 25–50 mg/kg/day IM or IV in equally divided doses at 6–8 hr intervals.
- > 20 kg: 250 mg PO q 6 hr.
- < 20 kg: 50 mg/kg/day PO in equally divided doses q 6–8 hr.
- GI and GU infections, including women with N. gonorrhoeae:
- > 40 kg: 500 mg IM or IV q 6 hr.
- < 40 kg: 50–100 mg/kg/day IM or IV in equally divided doses q 6–8 hr.
- > 20 kg: 500 mg PO q 6 hr.
- < 20 kg: 100 mg/kg/day PO in equally divided doses q 6–8 hr.
- Gonococcal infections: 500 mg q 6 hr for penicillin-sensitive organism or for patients > 45 kg, single dose of 3.5 g PO with 1 g probenecid.
- Bacterial meningitis: 150–200 mg/kg/day by continuous IV drip and then IM injections in equally divided doses q 3–4 hr.
- Septicemia: 150–200 mg/kg/day IV for at least 3 days, then IM q 3–4 hr.
- Prevention of bacterial endocarditis for GI or GU surgery or instrumentation: 50 mg/kg ampicillin IM or IV with 1.5 mg/kg gentamicin IM or IV within 30 minutes of procedure. Six hours later give 25 mg/kg ampicillin IM or IV or 25 mg/kg amoxicillin PO.
- Prevention of bacterial endocarditis for dental, oral, or upper respiratory procedures: 50 mg/kg ampicillin IM or IV within 30 minutes of procedure.
- Bactericidal action against sensitive organisms; inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall, causing cell death.
- Treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of Shigella, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, enterococci, gram-positive organisms (penicillin G–sensitive staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci)
- Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis
- Unlabeled use: Prophylaxis in cesarean section in certain high-risk patients
- CNS: Lethargy, hallucinations, seizures
- CV: CHF
- GI: Glossitis, stomatitis, gastritis, sore mouth, furry tongue, black “hairy” tongue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, enterocolitis, pseudomembranous colitis, nonspecific hepatitis
- GU: Nephritis
- Hematologic: Anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, prolonged bleeding time
- Hypersensitivity: Rash, fever, wheezing, anaphylaxis
- Local: Pain, phlebitis, thrombosis at injection site (parenteral)
- Other: Superinfections—oral and rectal moniliasis, vaginitis
Contraindications and cautions
- Contraindicated with allergies to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens.
- Use cautiously with renal disorders.
- History: Allergies to penicillins, cephalosporins, or other allergens; renal disorders; lactation
- Physical: Culture infected area; skin color, lesion; R, adventitious sounds; bowel sounds; CBC, LFTs, renal function tests, serum electrolytes, Hct, urinalysis
- Culture infected area before treatment; reculture area if response is not as expected.
- Check IV site carefully for signs of thrombosis or drug reaction.
- Do not give IM injections in the same site; atrophy can occur. Monitor injection sites.
- Administer oral drug on an empty stomach, 1 hr before or 2 hr after meals with a full glass of water; do not give with fruit juice or soft drinks.
- Take this drug around-the-clock.
- Take the full course of therapy; do not stop taking the drug if you feel better.
- Take the oral drug on an empty stomach, 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals; do not take with fruit juice or soft drinks; the oral solution is stable for 7 days at room temperature or 14 days refrigerated.
- This antibiotic is specific to your problem and should not be used to self-treat other infections.
- You may experience these side effects: Nausea, vomiting, GI upset (eat frequent small meals), diarrhea.
- Report pain or discomfort at sites, unusual bleeding or bruising, mouth sores, rash, hives, fever, itching, severe diarrhea, difficulty breathing.