MSN Exam for Acute Renal Failure

Practice Mode

Welcome to your MSN Exam for Acute Renal Failure! This exam is carefully curated to help you consolidate your knowledge and gain deeper understanding on the topic.

 

βœ” Exam Details

  • Number of Questions: 65 items
  • Mode: Practice Mode

βœ” Exam Instructions

  1. Practice Mode: This mode aims to facilitate effective learning and review.
  2. Instant Feedback: After each question, the correct answer along with an explanation will be revealed. This is to help you understand the reasoning behind the correct answer, helping to reinforce your learning.
  3. Time Limit: There is no time limit for this exam. Take your time to understand each question and the corresponding choices.

βœ” Tips For Success

  • Read each question carefully. Take your time and don't rush.
  • Understand the rationale behind each answer. This will not only help you during this exam, but also assist in reinforcing your learning.
  • Don't be discouraged by incorrect answers. Use them as an opportunity to learn and improve.
  • Take breaks if you need them. It's not a race, and your understanding is what's most important.
  • Keep a positive attitude and believe in your ability to succeed.

Remember, this exam is not just a test of your knowledge, but also an opportunity to enhance your understanding and skills. Enjoy the learning journey!

 

Click 'Start Exam' when you're ready to begin. Best of luck!

πŸ’‘ Hint

While each of these values should be monitored, potassium is a bit like a tightrope walker – it requires a delicate balance. Too much or too little in the blood can lead to serious, even life-threatening, heart rhythm issues.

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1. In the renal unit, Nurse Sarah is meticulously examining the lab results of a patient with acute renal failure. She realizes that one particular result needs immediate reporting to the physician. She discusses with a fellow nurse, "Among these results, which one do you think should be flagged to the doctor right away?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Patients with chronic renal failure are at risk of fluid overload.

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2. Nurse Ethan is advising a patient suffering from chronic renal failure on the importance of keeping track of weight changes. He wants to make sure the patient knows when it's essential to report any weight changes to the doctor. Which of the following scenarios should he highlight as a crucial one for notifying the physician?

πŸ’‘ Hint

Understanding the patients' knowledge and perception of their medical conditions and treatments is crucial in nursing.

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3. Nurse Avery is attending to a female patient suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The patient expresses mixed feelings, stating she resents being dependent on the dialysis machine, yet feels relieved about starting dialysis as it will allow her to consume whatever she wishes. Drawing from this dialogue, which nursing diagnosis should Avery identify for her patient?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the mechanism by which the kidneys respond to changes in blood pressure or sodium levels. It is a feedback loop that helps to maintain the body's fluid and electrolyte balance.

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4. Nurse Mia is conducting a teaching session about the renal system for her junior colleagues. She's explaining the complex mechanism by which the kidneys regulate sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) levels. Which option best captures the process Mia is describing?

πŸ’‘ Hint

Picture the kidneys as a filtration plant working at its lowest efficiency in end-stage renal disease. The defining threshold of GFR is low, but not quite in single digits.

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5. During a seminar at Central City Hospital, Nurse Baker learns about the severity of end-stage renal disease. She recalls, "What is the threshold glomerular filtration rate (GFR) - in ml/min per 1.73m2 - that defines end-stage renal disease?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Picture your body as a city, your kidneys the waste disposal plant. When the plant fails, waste builds up. What term describes this pollution of the body's environment?

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6. Nurse Samantha was deep in conversation with a colleague about one of her patients. The patient, a middle-aged man, had been exhibiting signs of lethargy, confusion, anorexia, and nausea.

As Samantha listed out the patient's symptoms, she highlighted that these conditions are often associated with the metabolic disruptions brought on by a certain medical state. She asked her colleague, "What's the medical term we use when these metabolic impairments, including Hyperkalemia, Acidosis, Hyperlipidemia, Hyperuricemia, and malnutrition, come into play?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Think about how much you drink in a day. Your kidneys must process all that fluid, but they also recycle much of it back into your body. So, the actual amount they let go as urine might be less than you'd think.

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7. In a health class, Nurse Amelia is teaching about the kidney's role in water balance. She challenges her students with a question, "Could you tell me approximately how much water healthy kidneys typically excrete in a day?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is a basic nursing task that can be safely delegated to a nursing assistant, as it does not require any specialized skills or knowledge.

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8. As a newly graduated Registered Nurse, you are tasked with the care of a patient suffering from acute renal failure and hypernatremia. The charge nurse instructs you to delegate some tasks to the nursing assistant on your team. You ponder, "Which of these patient care activities can I safely delegate to the nursing assistant?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Acute kidney rejection is a condition in which the body's immune system attacks the transplanted kidney.

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9. Nurse Thomas is educating a patient who has recently undergone a kidney transplant. He wants to ensure that the patient is aware of the signs and symptoms of acute kidney rejection. Which of the following symptoms should he advise the patient to watch out for?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This phase involves prolonged exposure to the causative factors leading to a range of symptoms including fluid retention and electrolyte imbalances. This phase is synonymous with a state of upkeep or continuation over a certain period.

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10. In a busy morning shift, Nurse Wilson finds himself managing a patient exhibiting symptoms such as fluid volume excess, edema due to salt and water retention, hypertension, Azotemia, hyperkalemia, muscle weakness, nausea, diarrhea, and high serum creatinine and BUN levels. As he analyzes the case, he wonders which phase of Acute Renal Failure his patient could be in. Which phase is it?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the type of renal failure that is the least common type of renal failure.

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11. Nurse Mason is sharing an example with his students about a particular type of renal failure. He explains that this form of failure is brought about by an obstruction in the flow of urine, potentially due to an enlarged prostate or a tumor blocking the urethra, or even by calculi obstructing the ureter or kidney pelvis. Can the students identify the type of renal failure he is describing?

πŸ’‘ Hint

These agents are named for their destructive nature, which is specifically targeted at the organ they damage, much like how a toxin would behave. They sound like they're "toxic" to a specific part of the anatomy.

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12. Nurse Parker is instructing her nursing students about various factors that can cause damage to kidney tissue. She asks her students if they can recall the name of these damaging agents. Which term is she referring to?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the result that is most likely to indicate hyperkalemia, a condition in which the level of potassium in the blood is too high. Hyperkalemia can be a life-threatening condition, especially in patients with acute renal failure.

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13. Nurse Liam is examining the latest lab results for a patient with acute renal failure. As he pores over the data, one particular result grabs his attention, prompting him to immediately report it to the physician. Which result is he most likely concerned about?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the most common cause of ESRD, as it can damage the kidneys over time.

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14. Nurse Anna is educating a group of nursing students about the common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). She poses a question to the group, "What chronic condition is considered the primary cause of ESRD among patients?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the stage of chronic renal failure in which the kidneys are no longer able to function adequately. It is a serious condition that requires specialized treatment, such as dialysis or kidney transplant.

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15. Nurse Isabel is caring for a patient with chronic renal failure. The patient's kidneys now possess too few nephrons to efficiently excrete metabolic waste and manage fluid and electrolyte balance. This advanced stage of chronic renal failure is referred to as what?

πŸ’‘ Hint

The BUN test is one of the ways we monitor kidney health. This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, in the blood. A "normal" range should indicate effective clearance of this waste by the kidneys.

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16. During her regular shift at the hospital, Nurse Stevens reviews lab results for her patients. She's analyzing the Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) values as part of her assessments. What is considered a typical range for BUN levels?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the phase of acute renal failure that is most likely to be associated with fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Nurses need to be vigilant about monitoring the patient's fluid status and serum electrolyte levels during this phase.

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17. Nurse Collins is attending to a patient suffering from acute renal failure. Suddenly, the patient's urinary output spikes to 150 ml/hr, leading Nurse Collins to deduce that the patient has transitioned into the second phase of acute renal failure. During this phase, what signs and symptoms should she be vigilant about?

πŸ’‘ Hint

Picture dilute urine as a watered-down drink. The markers to confirm its presence would show low 'concentration' values, hinting that it's not as 'strong' as it should be. Now, consider which test results could symbolize this diluted state.

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18. At City Cross Hospital, Nurse Mitchell is evaluating a patient suspected of producing dilute urine. She considers, "Which tests and their corresponding results can confirm the presence of dilute urine?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the most common reason for using CRRT, as it is used to remove excess fluid from the blood.

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19. Nurse Lisa is caring for a patient in acute renal failure who has been identified as a suitable candidate for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Lisa is discussing with a medical student about the primary reason for recommending CRRT. She asks, "Could you tell me what's the most typical indication for implementing CRRT in patients?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the test that provides the most direct measure of kidney function. It is the most important renal function test in clinical practice because it can be used to diagnose and monitor kidney disease.

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20. Nurse Ava is conducting a seminar on renal function assessment for a group of trainee nurses. She poses a question to them, "Can you tell me, which renal function test is typically considered the most crucial one in clinical practice?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

The number might remind you of something you probably experience every day – the minutes on a clock. That's one loop around the hour hand. Consider the importance of this number in time and its significance in urine output.

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21. During her shift, Nurse Lily is closely monitoring the urine output of her patients. She needs to recognize if the urine output drops below a certain threshold, which is considered the minimum normal output per hour. What is this value?

πŸ’‘ Hint

A decrease in the BUN to creatinine ratio can be a sign of fluid volume excess, but it can also be a sign of malnutrition. However, it is more likely to be a sign of fluid volume excess in this case, as the patient is also suspected of having fluid volume imbalance.

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22. During a meeting with her team, Nurse Samantha discusses a case of a patient with suspected fluid volume imbalance and potential malnutrition. She asks her team, "Does an increase or decrease in the Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) to Creatinine ratio signal issues such as fluid volume excess or malnutrition?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the component that makes up the majority of urine's composition. It is essential for the body to function properly and helps to transport nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate body temperature.

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23. During a health education session, Nurse Emily is explaining to her patient about the composition of urine. She poses a question to her patient, "Can you tell me which component forms the majority of urine's composition?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is a type of kidney disease that can develop after a strep throat infection, as the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the kidneys.

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24. Nurse Matthew is reviewing the medical history of a new patient, noticing a past infection caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. He's aware of the potential renal complications associated with this type of infection. He asks a colleague, "Can you remind me which renal disorder is often linked with a history of infection by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

As engaging as a detective story, healthcare often requires piecing together symptoms to gauge a situation's severity. Here, consider how post-dialysis symptoms may hint at a complication that necessitates more than just symptomatic treatment.

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25. After an intensive hemodialysis session at Sunshine Care Dialysis Center, Nurse Gray finds her patient writhing in discomfort. The patient laments a throbbing headache, waves of nausea, and an unshakeable restlessness. Prompted by these symptoms, she considers, "What would be the most suitable course of action to take under such circumstances?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Think about the transition of seasons, a process that doesn't happen overnight. Just as nature takes its time to shift from winter to spring or summer to fall, some health conditions need a certain time frame to move from transient to persistent.

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26. Nurse Benjamin is conducting a workshop on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) for a team of healthcare professionals. He asks the team, "According to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI), CKD is defined as evidence of structural or functional kidney abnormalities, demonstrated by abnormal urinalysis, imaging studies, or histology, that persist for at least how many months, irrespective of whether the Glomerular Filtration Rate is decreased?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Consider a scenario where a storm hits suddenly and causes significant damage in a very short time. Now translate that to the context of renal health. What type of renal failure does this rapid, significant change most closely resemble?

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27. Nurse Aiden is preparing to educate a group of student nurses about renal failure. He wants to highlight a type of renal failure that is characterized by a sudden and sharp deterioration in kidney function. Which type of renal failure is he referring to?

πŸ’‘ Hint

Imagine the renal tubules as a busy highway, and nephrotoxins are like roadblocks. Now add in ischemia, akin to poor road maintenance due to lack of funding (or oxygen). The combination could lead to a serious accident or, in our case, a condition that spells disaster for the tubules.

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28. In a teaching session, Nurse Laura is explaining to her fellow nurses about certain renal conditions that can arise due to a combination of ischemia and exposure to nephrotoxins. She quizzes her colleagues, "Which renal condition is most likely to develop when a patient experiences both ischemia and exposure to a nephrotoxin simultaneously?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the type of diet that is best for people with renal failure. It provides enough calories, while restricting protein and ensuring that the majority of calories come from carbohydrates.

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29. Nurse Elizabeth is advising a patient with renal failure on dietary modifications. Keeping in mind the condition of the patient's kidneys, which kind of diet should she recommend?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This test measures how well your kidneys are filtering creatinine out of your blood.

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30. Working in the renal unit, Nurse David often has to explain complex kidney functions to his patients. He is currently discussing with a patient, Mrs. Lewis, the significance of assessing her kidney's filtration capabilities. David wants Mrs. Lewis to understand which test is most often monitored to evaluate glomerular filtration rate and overall kidney function. He asks her, "Mrs. Lewis, can you recall which diagnostic test we use to keep track of your kidneys' filtration performance and overall health?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the hormone that is responsible for the body's "water conservation" mechanism. When levels of this hormone are high, the kidneys absorb more water, which helps to prevent dehydration.

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31. During a tutoring session, Nurse Jack is helping a nursing student understand the body's fluid regulation mechanisms. He asks her a question, "Can you tell me which hormone plays a crucial role in controlling the absorption of water in our body?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Kidneys are remarkable for their balancing act with electrolytes, but when they falter, potassium is a key player to watch. Remember, too much of it could put your heart in a pinch - and the heart is one organ you definitely don't want to upset!

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32. Nurse James is providing education to his patient, Mr. Thompson, who has recently been diagnosed with kidney disease. James is explaining the potential complications of the disease, specifically serious electrolyte imbalances. He asks Mr. Thompson, "Can you recall which electrolyte disorder I mentioned as being particularly severe in connection with kidney disease?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Remember, urine isn't just water. It's a complex cocktail of waste materials, including electrolytes like those in sports drinks, but in this case, they're being removed rather than replenished. The balance of these electrolytes is important for our body's health.

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33. As part of her daily rounds, Nurse Ava is discussing with her patient, Mr. Johnson, about the significance of electrolytes in the body and how some of them are excreted via urine. She wants to educate him about the specific electrolytes typically found in urine. She asks him, "Mr. Johnson, do you remember which electrolytes we discussed are typically present in urine?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

When the kidneys fail, they are not able to remove excess potassium from the blood.

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34. During a lecture to nursing students, Nurse Annabelle is discussing the serious consequences of kidney failure. She mentions that one particular condition stands as the leading cause of death when kidneys fail. Which condition is she referring to?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This electrolyte imbalance is characterized by low levels of sodium in the blood.

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35. Nurse William is caring for a female patient who was admitted with a diagnosis of acute renal failure. The patient is conscious, aware, and complaining of intense back pain, along with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort. Her vital statistics are blood pressure at 100/70 mm Hg, pulse rate at 110, respiration rate at 30, and an oral temperature of 100.4Β°F (38Β°C). Her electrolyte results show sodium levels at 120 mEq/L and potassium at 5.2 mEq/L, and she has only produced 50 ml of urine over the past 8 hours. What kind of electrolyte imbalance does the patient's condition suggest?

πŸ’‘ Hint

Think about a water dam with a faulty gate. If the gate is not regulating the flow of water properly, what would be the logical step to prevent overflow?

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36. Nurse Victoria is working with a patient whose kidneys are struggling to regulate fluid and electrolyte balance and to eliminate metabolic waste products effectively. Given these conditions, what should the approach be towards the patient's fluid and sodium intake?

πŸ’‘ Hint

Think of the condition as a tumultuous journey. In the phase we're looking for, the patient is right in the thick of things, stuck in a situation where the kidneys are struggling to maintain their basic functions.

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37. While caring for a patient with acute renal failure at Harmony Medical Center, Nurse Anderson reviews the various phases of the condition. She recalls, "During which phase of acute renal failure does oliguria occur, rendering the kidneys unable to effectively remove metabolic wastes, water, electrolytes, and acids?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

To keep our bodies in balance, the kidneys work tirelessly. In the process of filtering our blood, they excrete an impressive amount of substances including salt. Remember, this amount is also closely linked with your daily salt intake.

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38. Nurse Williams is educating her patient about kidney functions as part of a wellness check-up. She mentions the kidneys' role in managing salt levels in the body. On average, how much salt do healthy kidneys eliminate each day?

πŸ’‘ Hint

Think about the grand orchestra of our body and how each organ plays its part, especially the kidneys, which often deal in 'grams', not 'milligrams', when it comes to filtering out crucial substances.

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39. During a lively discussion at the University Hospital nursing station, Nurse Davis ponders on a physiology-related query. She asks, "On an average day, how much potassium chloride (KCL) do healthy kidneys manage to eliminate?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Consider the nature of the diuretic phase, where the kidneys start to recover and produce a large amount of urine. Like a dried up riverbed after a heavy rainfall, what could this sudden flow possibly lead to?

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40. A week into treating a patient with acute renal failure, Nurse Alex notices that the patient has transitioned into the diuretic phase. As he continues to provide care, which condition should he be particularly watchful for during this phase?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the typical acidity level of urine because the kidneys produce urine that is slightly acidic in order to help to flush out acids from the body. If the urine were too alkaline, it would not be able to effectively flush out acids.

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41. Nurse Andrew is presenting a lecture on urinary system health to his patients. One topic of interest is the acidity of urine. He poses the following question to his audience, "What is the typical acidity level of urine?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

While the kidneys' job isn't fighting off invaders, their failure can open the gates. What happens when the body's defenses are compromised?

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42. Nurse Jane was assisting a patient who had been recently diagnosed with acute renal failure. The patient, having done some research, wanted to understand the complications associated with his condition better. He asked Jane, "What is the most significant complication that I should be aware of as someone suffering from acute renal failure?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the most important thing to do after a left nephrectomy, as it will help to ensure that the remaining kidney is functioning properly.

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43. Nurse Sara has been given the responsibility of caring for a patient who has just been transferred to her unit after undergoing a left nephrectomy. Sara knows she needs to prioritize certain aspects of care for her patient's well-being. She considers, "What would be my topmost priority in providing care for my patient following a left nephrectomy?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Envision ESRD as a nearly empty gas tank, where the kidneys are running on minimal fuel. The GFR that defines this stage is quite low but slightly above a single digit.

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44. While caring for a patient with advanced renal disease at Riverside General Hospital, Nurse Bennett ponders over the severity of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). She questions, "What is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) threshold in milliliters per minute that defines the occurrence of ESRD?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

The presence of these substances in urine is not a red flag.

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45. As Nurse John is discussing urinary composition with his fellow healthcare workers, he poses a true-or-false question to stimulate discussion, "Are we to believe that the presence of creatinine, phosphate, sulfates, and uric acid in urine is abnormal and indicative of renal failure?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the primary goal of anti-hypertensive therapy in the context of chronic renal disease. It is important to remember that damage to either the kidneys or the heart can lead to further complications, such as kidney failure or heart attack.

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46. Nurse Hannah is teaching her patients about chronic kidney disease. She explains the purpose of anti-hypertensive therapy for those suffering from this condition. What is the primary goal of this treatment in the context of chronic renal disease?

πŸ’‘ Hint

NSAIDs do not interfere with the secretion of creatinine or the assay used to measure its serum concentration.

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47. In the midst of her bustling shift, Nurse Madison has to administer medication to a patient who is going to have their serum creatinine levels tested. She has to ensure that the medication she gives will not tamper with either the secretion of creatinine or the assay used to gauge its serum concentration. Which medication can she safely administer from the following options?

πŸ’‘ Hint

Think of the diuretic phase as a dam suddenly releasing its water. It's a period of increased urine output, which might sound good initially, but if not managed properly, the body could be left parched, much like the downstream areas after a dam release.

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48. In the hospital's renal unit, Nurse Robert has been caring for Marina, a patient with acute renal failure. After a week of treatment, Marina transitions into the diuretic phase. Robert knows this stage requires vigilant monitoring for certain conditions. He discusses with a junior nurse, "What potential condition should we carefully watch for during Marina's diuretic phase?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

A river flows freely until it reaches a dam or blockage, but what if the problem lies within the riverbed itself? The answer lies where the issue originates.

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49. Nurse Michael was providing education to a group of nursing students during their clinical rotation in the nephrology unit. One of his patients had recently suffered a sudden loss in kidney function due to a combination of severe hypertension, exposure to harmful substances, and muscle tissue breakdown from a heatstroke. He asked his students, "This patient's condition involves acute damage to renal tissue and nephrons, as well as acute tubular necrosis, leading to a drastic drop in tubular and glomerular function. What type of renal failure are we dealing with here?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Imagine your kidneys as diligent chemists, maintaining a balance of water and electrolytes. If the chemists become less adept, what might be some of the first changes you'd notice?

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50. Nurse Liam was conducting a health teaching session for patients at risk of kidney disease. He explained how some initial signs could be subtle and easily overlooked. One of the potential early indicators was a decrease in the ability to concentrate, alongside alterations in urine concentration and volume. He then posed a question to his audience, "Is it accurate to say that early signs of kidney disease often include a reduced ability in the concentration and dilution of urine?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

The frequency of changing dialysate in CAPD paints a picture of the busy life of patients undergoing this treatment. It's a dance that happens more often than a daily coffee break but less frequently than a meal.

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51. At Springfield Clinic, Nurse Johnson is overseeing a patient who's been prescribed continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). She questions, "In the context of CAPD, after how many hours does the patient need to empty their peritoneal cavity and refresh the dialysate?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the most important nursing intervention in the oliguric phase of ARF, as it helps to prevent fluid overload and its complications.

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52. Nurse Julia is taking care of a male patient who is in the oliguric phase of acute renal failure (ARF). Among her nursing interventions, which one should she prioritize the most?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is a complication that is most likely to occur in patients who are new to dialysis. Symptoms can be sudden and severe, and it is important to seek medical attention immediately if they occur.

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53. Nurse Olivia, with her years of expertise, is vigilantly attending to a female patient who is experiencing her inaugural session of dialysis due to acute renal failure. Olivia knows that she must keep a close eye out for dialysis equilibrium syndrome, a complication that often occurs during the initial dialysis treatments. If this syndrome manifests, what signs and symptoms can Olivia expect to observe in her patient?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This type of renal failure occurs before the kidneys are damaged, and it is caused by an impaired blood supply to the kidneys.

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54. Nurse Mark is caring for a patient, Mr. Brown, who is showing signs of renal dysfunction due to decreased blood flow to his kidneys from heart failure. Mark explains to Mr. Brown that there are different types of renal failure and the one he is most likely suffering from is due to an impaired supply of blood to the kidney, which can result from fluid volume deficit, hemorrhage, heart failure, or shock. Mark asks Mr. Brown, "Can you recall the type of renal failure we talked about that occurs due to an impaired blood supply to the kidneys?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the type of renal failure that is most likely to be diagnosed in the later stages, as the symptoms are often mild or nonexistent in the early stages.

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55. Nurse Benjamin is explaining to a group of nursing students about a type of renal failure characterized by a gradual, stealthy process of kidney destruction, often remaining unnoticed for years while nephrons are damaged and the renal mass decreases. Is he discussing:

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the activity that has the potential to cause the most harm to the patient. Physical activity can increase the risk of bleeding, which can be serious in the context of a renal biopsy.

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56. Nurse Olivia is attending to a patient who has recently undergone a renal biopsy. Among her post-procedure care actions, which one should she ideally refrain from doing?

πŸ’‘ Hint

In the vast world of pharmacology, some medicines, while beneficial for some conditions, may prove harmful for specific organs. These include a common class of drugs often used for pain relief, inflammation, and fever reduction.

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57. While caring for a patient with compromised kidney function at Serenity Medical Center, Nurse Thompson reflects on her pharmacology knowledge. She considers, "Which among these medications is known to be potentially harmful to the kidneys, exhibiting nephrotoxic properties?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Just as a stormy, cloudy sky can be a sign of impending rain, cloudiness in certain medical scenarios can signify trouble, specifically an infectious one. Reflect on how the body reacts when invaded by pathogens.

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58. In the tranquility of a home-care setting, Nurse Wilson assists a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The patient remarks that the dialysate in the collection bag appears cloudy. Nurse Wilson considers, "What could be the potential explanation for the cloudiness observed in the dialysate collection bag?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This can make it difficult for the body to receive the oxygen and nutrients it needs, and it can also increase the risk of complications during surgery.

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59. Nurse Jackson is assisting a patient advancing speedily toward End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The patient, anxious about his condition, inquires about the possibility of a kidney transplant. Considering the potential contraindications, Nurse Jackson knows that the patient's eligibility for a kidney transplant might be compromised by:

πŸ’‘ Hint

In the fascinating language of medicine, words often hint at their meanings. Consider a term that echoes the kidneys' crucial role in filtering waste products from the bloodstream, a role compromised when toxins build up.

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60. During her shift at Evergreen Hospital, Nurse Patterson encounters a patient with a suspected buildup of toxins in their blood. She ponders, "What is the medical term for the accumulation of toxins in one's bloodstream?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

Reflect on the early stages of kidney failure. The kidneys are still functioning but with diminished efficiency, leading to an interesting paradox: an increase in a certain activity instead of the expected decrease.

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61. At Meadowland General Hospital, Nurse Philips admits a patient diagnosed with early stage chronic renal failure. As she carries out her assessment, she wonders, "Which of these symptoms is typically associated with a patient in the early stages of chronic renal failure?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is a type of dialysis that is often used in the ICU setting. It is a continuous process that can be used to stabilize patients with acute kidney injury or to provide long-term dialysis for patients with chronic kidney failure.

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62. Nurse Jacob is explaining to a group of nursing students about a therapeutic process for renal failure. This process entails the continuous circulation of blood, either from artery to vein or vein to vein, wherein excess water and solutes are filtered out and directed into a collection device. As necessary, fluid can be supplemented with a balanced electrolyte solution during the treatment. What is the term for this procedure?

πŸ’‘ Hint

Think of the kidneys as careful sieves, allowing some substances to pass while holding back others. These include key building blocks of our body, which are usually retained to keep the body functioning efficiently.

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63. While conducting a urinalysis at Heartland Regional Medical Center, Nurse Benson comes across a quandary concerning the standard components of urine. She muses, "Which of the following substances is typically not detected in urine?"

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is a condition that is often treated with hypertonic glucose, insulin infusions, and sodium bicarbonate. These treatments help to move potassium out of the bloodstream and into the cells, where it belongs.

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64. As Nurse Tristan attends to a male patient grappling with acute renal failure, he knows to anticipate specific treatments. In this case, he should expect the use of hypertonic glucose, insulin infusions, and sodium bicarbonate to alleviate which of the following conditions?

πŸ’‘ Hint

This is the complication that is most likely to lead to serious complications, such as stroke or heart attack. Nurses need to be vigilant about monitoring the patient's blood pressure during hemodialysis and to take steps to prevent or treat high blood pressure.

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65. As Nurse Miranda is discussing potential complications of hemodialysis with her team, she highlights the most common issue they need to anticipate. Which of these complications is typically the most frequent during hemodialysis?

Exam Mode

Welcome to your MSN Exam for Acute Renal Failure! This exam is carefully designed to provide you with a realistic test-taking experience, preparing you for the pressures of an actual nursing exam.

 

βœ” Exam Details

  • Number of Questions: 65 items
  • Mode: Exam Mode

βœ” Exam Instructions

  1. Exam Mode: This mode is intended to simulate the environment of an actual exam. Questions and choices will be presented one at a time.
  2. Time Limit: Each question must be answered within 90 seconds. The entire exam should be completed within 1 hour, 37 minutes, and 30 seconds.
  3. Feedback and Grading: Upon completion of the exam, you will be able to see your grade and the correct answers to all questions. This will allow you to evaluate your performance and understand areas for improvement.

βœ” Tips For Success

  • Read each question carefully. You have 90 seconds per question, so make sure you understand the question before selecting your answer.
  • Pace yourself. Remember, you have 1 hour, 37 minutes, and 30 seconds in total, so try to maintain a steady rhythm.
  • Focus on one question at a time. Try not to worry about the questions to come.
  • Stay calm under pressure. Use your knowledge and trust your instincts.
  • Remember, it's not just about the score, but about the learning process.

This exam is not only a measurement of your current understanding, but also a valuable learning tool to prepare you for your future nursing career. Click 'Start Exam' when you're ready to begin. Good luck!

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1. In the hospital's renal unit, Nurse Robert has been caring for Marina, a patient with acute renal failure. After a week of treatment, Marina transitions into the diuretic phase. Robert knows this stage requires vigilant monitoring for certain conditions. He discusses with a junior nurse, "What potential condition should we carefully watch for during Marina's diuretic phase?"

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2. At Springfield Clinic, Nurse Johnson is overseeing a patient who's been prescribed continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). She questions, "In the context of CAPD, after how many hours does the patient need to empty their peritoneal cavity and refresh the dialysate?"

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3. Nurse Victoria is working with a patient whose kidneys are struggling to regulate fluid and electrolyte balance and to eliminate metabolic waste products effectively. Given these conditions, what should the approach be towards the patient's fluid and sodium intake?

4 / 65

4. While caring for a patient with compromised kidney function at Serenity Medical Center, Nurse Thompson reflects on her pharmacology knowledge. She considers, "Which among these medications is known to be potentially harmful to the kidneys, exhibiting nephrotoxic properties?"

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5. Nurse Mason is sharing an example with his students about a particular type of renal failure. He explains that this form of failure is brought about by an obstruction in the flow of urine, potentially due to an enlarged prostate or a tumor blocking the urethra, or even by calculi obstructing the ureter or kidney pelvis. Can the students identify the type of renal failure he is describing?

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6. During a lively discussion at the University Hospital nursing station, Nurse Davis ponders on a physiology-related query. She asks, "On an average day, how much potassium chloride (KCL) do healthy kidneys manage to eliminate?"

7 / 65

7. Nurse Benjamin is explaining to a group of nursing students about a type of renal failure characterized by a gradual, stealthy process of kidney destruction, often remaining unnoticed for years while nephrons are damaged and the renal mass decreases. Is he discussing:

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8. As Nurse Tristan attends to a male patient grappling with acute renal failure, he knows to anticipate specific treatments. In this case, he should expect the use of hypertonic glucose, insulin infusions, and sodium bicarbonate to alleviate which of the following conditions?

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9. Nurse Hannah is teaching her patients about chronic kidney disease. She explains the purpose of anti-hypertensive therapy for those suffering from this condition. What is the primary goal of this treatment in the context of chronic renal disease?

10 / 65

10. Nurse Elizabeth is advising a patient with renal failure on dietary modifications. Keeping in mind the condition of the patient's kidneys, which kind of diet should she recommend?

11 / 65

11. Nurse Ava is conducting a seminar on renal function assessment for a group of trainee nurses. She poses a question to them, "Can you tell me, which renal function test is typically considered the most crucial one in clinical practice?"

12 / 65

12. As a newly graduated Registered Nurse, you are tasked with the care of a patient suffering from acute renal failure and hypernatremia. The charge nurse instructs you to delegate some tasks to the nursing assistant on your team. You ponder, "Which of these patient care activities can I safely delegate to the nursing assistant?"

13 / 65

13. Nurse Ethan is advising a patient suffering from chronic renal failure on the importance of keeping track of weight changes. He wants to make sure the patient knows when it's essential to report any weight changes to the doctor. Which of the following scenarios should he highlight as a crucial one for notifying the physician?

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14. Nurse Liam is examining the latest lab results for a patient with acute renal failure. As he pores over the data, one particular result grabs his attention, prompting him to immediately report it to the physician. Which result is he most likely concerned about?

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15. As part of her daily rounds, Nurse Ava is discussing with her patient, Mr. Johnson, about the significance of electrolytes in the body and how some of them are excreted via urine. She wants to educate him about the specific electrolytes typically found in urine. She asks him, "Mr. Johnson, do you remember which electrolytes we discussed are typically present in urine?"

16 / 65

16. In a health class, Nurse Amelia is teaching about the kidney's role in water balance. She challenges her students with a question, "Could you tell me approximately how much water healthy kidneys typically excrete in a day?"

17 / 65

17. As Nurse Miranda is discussing potential complications of hemodialysis with her team, she highlights the most common issue they need to anticipate. Which of these complications is typically the most frequent during hemodialysis?

18 / 65

18. During a lecture to nursing students, Nurse Annabelle is discussing the serious consequences of kidney failure. She mentions that one particular condition stands as the leading cause of death when kidneys fail. Which condition is she referring to?

19 / 65

19. During a meeting with her team, Nurse Samantha discusses a case of a patient with suspected fluid volume imbalance and potential malnutrition. She asks her team, "Does an increase or decrease in the Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) to Creatinine ratio signal issues such as fluid volume excess or malnutrition?"

20 / 65

20. Nurse Mia is conducting a teaching session about the renal system for her junior colleagues. She's explaining the complex mechanism by which the kidneys regulate sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) levels. Which option best captures the process Mia is describing?

21 / 65

21. Nurse Samantha was deep in conversation with a colleague about one of her patients. The patient, a middle-aged man, had been exhibiting signs of lethargy, confusion, anorexia, and nausea.

As Samantha listed out the patient's symptoms, she highlighted that these conditions are often associated with the metabolic disruptions brought on by a certain medical state. She asked her colleague, "What's the medical term we use when these metabolic impairments, including Hyperkalemia, Acidosis, Hyperlipidemia, Hyperuricemia, and malnutrition, come into play?"

22 / 65

22. Nurse Andrew is presenting a lecture on urinary system health to his patients. One topic of interest is the acidity of urine. He poses the following question to his audience, "What is the typical acidity level of urine?"

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23. Nurse Parker is instructing her nursing students about various factors that can cause damage to kidney tissue. She asks her students if they can recall the name of these damaging agents. Which term is she referring to?

24 / 65

24. While conducting a urinalysis at Heartland Regional Medical Center, Nurse Benson comes across a quandary concerning the standard components of urine. She muses, "Which of the following substances is typically not detected in urine?"

25 / 65

25. During a health education session, Nurse Emily is explaining to her patient about the composition of urine. She poses a question to her patient, "Can you tell me which component forms the majority of urine's composition?"

26 / 65

26. During her shift at Evergreen Hospital, Nurse Patterson encounters a patient with a suspected buildup of toxins in their blood. She ponders, "What is the medical term for the accumulation of toxins in one's bloodstream?"

27 / 65

27. Nurse Lisa is caring for a patient in acute renal failure who has been identified as a suitable candidate for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Lisa is discussing with a medical student about the primary reason for recommending CRRT. She asks, "Could you tell me what's the most typical indication for implementing CRRT in patients?"

28 / 65

28. In the renal unit, Nurse Sarah is meticulously examining the lab results of a patient with acute renal failure. She realizes that one particular result needs immediate reporting to the physician. She discusses with a fellow nurse, "Among these results, which one do you think should be flagged to the doctor right away?"

29 / 65

29. Nurse Liam was conducting a health teaching session for patients at risk of kidney disease. He explained how some initial signs could be subtle and easily overlooked. One of the potential early indicators was a decrease in the ability to concentrate, alongside alterations in urine concentration and volume. He then posed a question to his audience, "Is it accurate to say that early signs of kidney disease often include a reduced ability in the concentration and dilution of urine?"

30 / 65

30. Nurse Sara has been given the responsibility of caring for a patient who has just been transferred to her unit after undergoing a left nephrectomy. Sara knows she needs to prioritize certain aspects of care for her patient's well-being. She considers, "What would be my topmost priority in providing care for my patient following a left nephrectomy?"

31 / 65

31. Nurse Mark is caring for a patient, Mr. Brown, who is showing signs of renal dysfunction due to decreased blood flow to his kidneys from heart failure. Mark explains to Mr. Brown that there are different types of renal failure and the one he is most likely suffering from is due to an impaired supply of blood to the kidney, which can result from fluid volume deficit, hemorrhage, heart failure, or shock. Mark asks Mr. Brown, "Can you recall the type of renal failure we talked about that occurs due to an impaired blood supply to the kidneys?"

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32. Nurse Olivia, with her years of expertise, is vigilantly attending to a female patient who is experiencing her inaugural session of dialysis due to acute renal failure. Olivia knows that she must keep a close eye out for dialysis equilibrium syndrome, a complication that often occurs during the initial dialysis treatments. If this syndrome manifests, what signs and symptoms can Olivia expect to observe in her patient?

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33. In a busy morning shift, Nurse Wilson finds himself managing a patient exhibiting symptoms such as fluid volume excess, edema due to salt and water retention, hypertension, Azotemia, hyperkalemia, muscle weakness, nausea, diarrhea, and high serum creatinine and BUN levels. As he analyzes the case, he wonders which phase of Acute Renal Failure his patient could be in. Which phase is it?

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34. At City Cross Hospital, Nurse Mitchell is evaluating a patient suspected of producing dilute urine. She considers, "Which tests and their corresponding results can confirm the presence of dilute urine?"

35 / 65

35. During a tutoring session, Nurse Jack is helping a nursing student understand the body's fluid regulation mechanisms. He asks her a question, "Can you tell me which hormone plays a crucial role in controlling the absorption of water in our body?"

36 / 65

36. Nurse Anna is educating a group of nursing students about the common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). She poses a question to the group, "What chronic condition is considered the primary cause of ESRD among patients?"

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37. In the midst of her bustling shift, Nurse Madison has to administer medication to a patient who is going to have their serum creatinine levels tested. She has to ensure that the medication she gives will not tamper with either the secretion of creatinine or the assay used to gauge its serum concentration. Which medication can she safely administer from the following options?

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38. Nurse Thomas is educating a patient who has recently undergone a kidney transplant. He wants to ensure that the patient is aware of the signs and symptoms of acute kidney rejection. Which of the following symptoms should he advise the patient to watch out for?

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39. Nurse Isabel is caring for a patient with chronic renal failure. The patient's kidneys now possess too few nephrons to efficiently excrete metabolic waste and manage fluid and electrolyte balance. This advanced stage of chronic renal failure is referred to as what?

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40. During her shift, Nurse Lily is closely monitoring the urine output of her patients. She needs to recognize if the urine output drops below a certain threshold, which is considered the minimum normal output per hour. What is this value?

41 / 65

41. Nurse Aiden is preparing to educate a group of student nurses about renal failure. He wants to highlight a type of renal failure that is characterized by a sudden and sharp deterioration in kidney function. Which type of renal failure is he referring to?

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42. Nurse Jane was assisting a patient who had been recently diagnosed with acute renal failure. The patient, having done some research, wanted to understand the complications associated with his condition better. He asked Jane, "What is the most significant complication that I should be aware of as someone suffering from acute renal failure?"

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43. While caring for a patient with acute renal failure at Harmony Medical Center, Nurse Anderson reviews the various phases of the condition. She recalls, "During which phase of acute renal failure does oliguria occur, rendering the kidneys unable to effectively remove metabolic wastes, water, electrolytes, and acids?"

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44. During her regular shift at the hospital, Nurse Stevens reviews lab results for her patients. She's analyzing the Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) values as part of her assessments. What is considered a typical range for BUN levels?

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45. After an intensive hemodialysis session at Sunshine Care Dialysis Center, Nurse Gray finds her patient writhing in discomfort. The patient laments a throbbing headache, waves of nausea, and an unshakeable restlessness. Prompted by these symptoms, she considers, "What would be the most suitable course of action to take under such circumstances?"

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46. While caring for a patient with advanced renal disease at Riverside General Hospital, Nurse Bennett ponders over the severity of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). She questions, "What is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) threshold in milliliters per minute that defines the occurrence of ESRD?"

47 / 65

47. Nurse James is providing education to his patient, Mr. Thompson, who has recently been diagnosed with kidney disease. James is explaining the potential complications of the disease, specifically serious electrolyte imbalances. He asks Mr. Thompson, "Can you recall which electrolyte disorder I mentioned as being particularly severe in connection with kidney disease?"

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48. Nurse Michael was providing education to a group of nursing students during their clinical rotation in the nephrology unit. One of his patients had recently suffered a sudden loss in kidney function due to a combination of severe hypertension, exposure to harmful substances, and muscle tissue breakdown from a heatstroke. He asked his students, "This patient's condition involves acute damage to renal tissue and nephrons, as well as acute tubular necrosis, leading to a drastic drop in tubular and glomerular function. What type of renal failure are we dealing with here?"

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49. Nurse Matthew is reviewing the medical history of a new patient, noticing a past infection caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. He's aware of the potential renal complications associated with this type of infection. He asks a colleague, "Can you remind me which renal disorder is often linked with a history of infection by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci?"

50 / 65

50. Nurse Jacob is explaining to a group of nursing students about a therapeutic process for renal failure. This process entails the continuous circulation of blood, either from artery to vein or vein to vein, wherein excess water and solutes are filtered out and directed into a collection device. As necessary, fluid can be supplemented with a balanced electrolyte solution during the treatment. What is the term for this procedure?

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51. Working in the renal unit, Nurse David often has to explain complex kidney functions to his patients. He is currently discussing with a patient, Mrs. Lewis, the significance of assessing her kidney's filtration capabilities. David wants Mrs. Lewis to understand which test is most often monitored to evaluate glomerular filtration rate and overall kidney function. He asks her, "Mrs. Lewis, can you recall which diagnostic test we use to keep track of your kidneys' filtration performance and overall health?"

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52. During a seminar at Central City Hospital, Nurse Baker learns about the severity of end-stage renal disease. She recalls, "What is the threshold glomerular filtration rate (GFR) - in ml/min per 1.73m2 - that defines end-stage renal disease?"

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53. Nurse Collins is attending to a patient suffering from acute renal failure. Suddenly, the patient's urinary output spikes to 150 ml/hr, leading Nurse Collins to deduce that the patient has transitioned into the second phase of acute renal failure. During this phase, what signs and symptoms should she be vigilant about?

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54. At Meadowland General Hospital, Nurse Philips admits a patient diagnosed with early stage chronic renal failure. As she carries out her assessment, she wonders, "Which of these symptoms is typically associated with a patient in the early stages of chronic renal failure?"

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55. Nurse Benjamin is conducting a workshop on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) for a team of healthcare professionals. He asks the team, "According to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI), CKD is defined as evidence of structural or functional kidney abnormalities, demonstrated by abnormal urinalysis, imaging studies, or histology, that persist for at least how many months, irrespective of whether the Glomerular Filtration Rate is decreased?"

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56. A week into treating a patient with acute renal failure, Nurse Alex notices that the patient has transitioned into the diuretic phase. As he continues to provide care, which condition should he be particularly watchful for during this phase?

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57. Nurse Olivia is attending to a patient who has recently undergone a renal biopsy. Among her post-procedure care actions, which one should she ideally refrain from doing?

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58. In a teaching session, Nurse Laura is explaining to her fellow nurses about certain renal conditions that can arise due to a combination of ischemia and exposure to nephrotoxins. She quizzes her colleagues, "Which renal condition is most likely to develop when a patient experiences both ischemia and exposure to a nephrotoxin simultaneously?"

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59. Nurse Avery is attending to a female patient suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The patient expresses mixed feelings, stating she resents being dependent on the dialysis machine, yet feels relieved about starting dialysis as it will allow her to consume whatever she wishes. Drawing from this dialogue, which nursing diagnosis should Avery identify for her patient?

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60. Nurse William is caring for a female patient who was admitted with a diagnosis of acute renal failure. The patient is conscious, aware, and complaining of intense back pain, along with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort. Her vital statistics are blood pressure at 100/70 mm Hg, pulse rate at 110, respiration rate at 30, and an oral temperature of 100.4Β°F (38Β°C). Her electrolyte results show sodium levels at 120 mEq/L and potassium at 5.2 mEq/L, and she has only produced 50 ml of urine over the past 8 hours. What kind of electrolyte imbalance does the patient's condition suggest?

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61. In the tranquility of a home-care setting, Nurse Wilson assists a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The patient remarks that the dialysate in the collection bag appears cloudy. Nurse Wilson considers, "What could be the potential explanation for the cloudiness observed in the dialysate collection bag?"

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62. As Nurse John is discussing urinary composition with his fellow healthcare workers, he poses a true-or-false question to stimulate discussion, "Are we to believe that the presence of creatinine, phosphate, sulfates, and uric acid in urine is abnormal and indicative of renal failure?"

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63. Nurse Julia is taking care of a male patient who is in the oliguric phase of acute renal failure (ARF). Among her nursing interventions, which one should she prioritize the most?

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64. Nurse Williams is educating her patient about kidney functions as part of a wellness check-up. She mentions the kidneys' role in managing salt levels in the body. On average, how much salt do healthy kidneys eliminate each day?

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65. Nurse Jackson is assisting a patient advancing speedily toward End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The patient, anxious about his condition, inquires about the possibility of a kidney transplant. Considering the potential contraindications, Nurse Jackson knows that the patient's eligibility for a kidney transplant might be compromised by:

Text Mode

Text ModeΒ – Text version of the exam

Questions

1) Nurse Mark is caring for a patient, Mr. Brown, who is showing signs of renal dysfunction due to decreased blood flow to his kidneys from heart failure. Mark explains to Mr. Brown that there are different types of renal failure and the one he is most likely suffering from is due to an impaired supply of blood to the kidney, which can result from fluid volume deficit, hemorrhage, heart failure, or shock. Mark asks Mr. Brown, “Can you recall the type of renal failure we talked about that occurs due to an impaired blood supply to the kidneys?”

A. Perirenal
B. Prerenal
C. Intrarenal
D. Postrenal

2) As part of her daily rounds, Nurse Ava is discussing with her patient, Mr. Johnson, about the significance of electrolytes in the body and how some of them are excreted via urine. She wants to educate him about the specific electrolytes typically found in urine. She asks him, “Mr. Johnson, do you remember which electrolytes we discussed are typically present in urine?”

A. Chloride ions
B. Bicarbonate ions
C. Sodium ions
D. All mentioned options.

3) Working in the renal unit, Nurse David often has to explain complex kidney functions to his patients. He is currently discussing with a patient, Mrs. Lewis, the significance of assessing her kidney’s filtration capabilities. David wants Mrs. Lewis to understand which test is most often monitored to evaluate glomerular filtration rate and overall kidney function. He asks her, “Mrs. Lewis, can you recall which diagnostic test we use to keep track of your kidneys’ filtration performance and overall health?”

A. Analysis of urine components.
B. Test measuring the creatinine clearance.
C. Blood test for serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
D. Sampling of kidney tissue for examination.

4) In the hospital’s renal unit, Nurse Robert has been caring for Marina, a patient with acute renal failure. After a week of treatment, Marina transitions into the diuretic phase. Robert knows this stage requires vigilant monitoring for certain conditions. He discusses with a junior nurse, “What potential condition should we carefully watch for during Marina’s diuretic phase?”

A. Further progression of kidney failure.
B. Low volume of circulating body fluids.
C. An imbalance of the body’s pH due to excessive acid.
D. High levels of potassium in the blood.

5) As Nurse John is discussing urinary composition with his fellow healthcare workers, he poses a true-or-false question to stimulate discussion, “Are we to believe that the presence of creatinine, phosphate, sulfates, and uric acid in urine is abnormal and indicative of renal failure?”

A. True
B. False

6) In the renal unit, Nurse Sarah is meticulously examining the lab results of a patient with acute renal failure. She realizes that one particular result needs immediate reporting to the physician. She discusses with a fellow nurse, “Among these results, which one do you think should be flagged to the doctor right away?”

A. Potassium level in the blood at 6 mEq/L.
B. Acidity of the venous blood with a pH of 7.30.
C. Blood urea nitrogen reading at 50 mg/dl.
D. Hemoglobin concentration measured at 10.3 mg/dl.

7) Nurse Sara has been given the responsibility of caring for a patient who has just been transferred to her unit after undergoing a left nephrectomy. Sara knows she needs to prioritize certain aspects of care for her patient’s well-being. She considers, “What would be my topmost priority in providing care for my patient following a left nephrectomy?”

A. Monitoring the patient’s urine output on an hourly basis.
B. Ensuring the patient is able to sip clear liquids.
C. Making sure the patient is able to turn from side to side.
D. Regularly checking the patient’s temperature.

8) As a newly graduated Registered Nurse, you are tasked with the care of a patient suffering from acute renal failure and hypernatremia. The charge nurse instructs you to delegate some tasks to the nursing assistant on your team. You ponder, “Which of these patient care activities can I safely delegate to the nursing assistant?”

A. Observing for signs of dehydration in the patient.
B. Providing oral care to the patient every 3-4 hours.
C. Administering 0.45% saline via the patient’s IV line.
D. Tracking the patient’s daily weight for trends.

9) During a meeting with her team, Nurse Samantha discusses a case of a patient with suspected fluid volume imbalance and potential malnutrition. She asks her team, “Does an increase or decrease in the Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) to Creatinine ratio signal issues such as fluid volume excess or malnutrition?”

A. Increase
B. Decrease

10) Nurse James is providing education to his patient, Mr. Thompson, who has recently been diagnosed with kidney disease. James is explaining the potential complications of the disease, specifically serious electrolyte imbalances. He asks Mr. Thompson, “Can you recall which electrolyte disorder I mentioned as being particularly severe in connection with kidney disease?”

A. Hyperkalemia
B. Hyponatremia
C. Hypermagnesemia
D. Metabolic acidosis

11) Nurse Lisa is caring for a patient in acute renal failure who has been identified as a suitable candidate for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Lisa is discussing with a medical student about the primary reason for recommending CRRT. She asks, “Could you tell me what’s the most typical indication for implementing CRRT in patients?”

A. Overabundance of fluid in the body.
B. Excessive levels of potassium in the blood.
C. Inflammation of the pericardium.
D. High levels of nitrogen waste in the blood.

12) Nurse Matthew is reviewing the medical history of a new patient, noticing a past infection caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. He’s aware of the potential renal complications associated with this type of infection. He asks a colleague, “Can you remind me which renal disorder is often linked with a history of infection by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci?”

A. Chronic renal failure
B. Nephrotic syndrome
C. Acute renal failure
D. Acute glomerulonephritis

13) Nurse Anna is educating a group of nursing students about the common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). She poses a question to the group, “What chronic condition is considered the primary cause of ESRD among patients?”

A. Anemia
B. History of prostate cancer.
C. Long-term presence of Diabetes Mellitus.
D. Persistent low blood pressure.

14) In a teaching session, Nurse Laura is explaining to her fellow nurses about certain renal conditions that can arise due to a combination of ischemia and exposure to nephrotoxins. She quizzes her colleagues, “Which renal condition is most likely to develop when a patient experiences both ischemia and exposure to a nephrotoxin simultaneously?”

A. Progressive loss of kidney function over time.
B. Infection of the urinary tract.
C. Acute Glomerulonephritis
D. Acute Tubular Necrosis Or Tubular Necrosis

15) During a tutoring session, Nurse Jack is helping a nursing student understand the body’s fluid regulation mechanisms. He asks her a question, “Can you tell me which hormone plays a crucial role in controlling the absorption of water in our body?”

A. Antidiuretic Hormone (Vasopressin)
B. Melanin
C. Thyroxine
D. Prolactin

16) During a health education session, Nurse Emily is explaining to her patient about the composition of urine. She poses a question to her patient, “Can you tell me which component forms the majority of urine’s composition?”

A. Potassium chloride
B. Urea, a waste product from protein metabolism.
C. Water
D. Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt.

17) In a health class, Nurse Amelia is teaching about the kidney’s role in water balance. She challenges her students with a question, “Could you tell me approximately how much water healthy kidneys typically excrete in a day?”

A. 1-2 liters of water.
B. 3-4 liters of water.
C. 5-6 liters of water.
D. 7-8 liters of water.

18) Nurse Benjamin is conducting a workshop on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) for a team of healthcare professionals. He asks the team, “According to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI), CKD is defined as evidence of structural or functional kidney abnormalities, demonstrated by abnormal urinalysis, imaging studies, or histology, that persist for at least how many months, irrespective of whether the Glomerular Filtration Rate is decreased?”

A. 1 month
B. 2 months
C. 3 months
D. 6 months

19) Nurse Ava is conducting a seminar on renal function assessment for a group of trainee nurses. She poses a question to them, “Can you tell me, which renal function test is typically considered the most crucial one in clinical practice?”

A. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
B. Serum Creatinine
C. Osmolarity
D. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

20) Nurse Julia is taking care of a male patient who is in the oliguric phase of acute renal failure (ARF). Among her nursing interventions, which one should she prioritize the most?

A. Implementing measures to relieve pain.
B. Encouraging consumption of carbohydrates.
C. Restricting fluid intake.
D. Promoting coughing and deep breathing exercises.

21) Nurse Williams is educating her patient about kidney functions as part of a wellness check-up. She mentions the kidneys’ role in managing salt levels in the body. On average, how much salt do healthy kidneys eliminate each day?

A. 1-2 milligrams
B. 3-4 grams
C. 5 grams
D. 6-8 grams

22) During her regular shift at the hospital, Nurse Stevens reviews lab results for her patients. She’s analyzing the Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) values as part of her assessments. What is considered a typical range for BUN levels?

A. 0.5-1.1 milligrams per deciliter.
B. 5-20 milligrams per deciliter.
C. 40-70 milligrams per deciliter.
D. 250-500 milligrams per deciliter.

23) Nurse Victoria is working with a patient whose kidneys are struggling to regulate fluid and electrolyte balance and to eliminate metabolic waste products effectively. Given these conditions, what should the approach be towards the patient’s fluid and sodium intake?

A. It should be encouraged.
B. It should be compensated.
C. It should be mixed.
D. It should be restricted.

24) Nurse Olivia is attending to a patient who has recently undergone a renal biopsy. Among her post-procedure care actions, which one should she ideally refrain from doing?

A. Checking successive urine samples for hidden blood using dipsticks.
B. Urging the patient to consume at least 3 liters of fluids in the first 24 hours.
C. Helping the patient walk around the room and hallway for brief periods.
D. Giving narcotics for pain management as required.

25) Nurse William is caring for a female patient who was admitted with a diagnosis of acute renal failure. The patient is conscious, aware, and complaining of intense back pain, along with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort. Her vital statistics are blood pressure at 100/70 mm Hg, pulse rate at 110, respiration rate at 30, and an oral temperature of 100.4Β°F (38Β°C). Her electrolyte results show sodium levels at 120 mEq/L and potassium at 5.2 mEq/L, and she has only produced 50 ml of urine over the past 8 hours. What kind of electrolyte imbalance does the patient’s condition suggest?

A. Hypercalcemia
B. Hyperphosphatemia
C. Hyperkalemia
D. Hyponatremia

26) During her shift, Nurse Lily is closely monitoring the urine output of her patients. She needs to recognize if the urine output drops below a certain threshold, which is considered the minimum normal output per hour. What is this value?

A. 30 ml/hr
B. 35 ml/hr
C. 40 ml/hr
D. 45 ml/hr

27) Nurse Thomas is educating a patient who has recently undergone a kidney transplant. He wants to ensure that the patient is aware of the signs and symptoms of acute kidney rejection. Which of the following symptoms should he advise the patient to watch out for?

A. Recurring urinary tract infections and oral yeast infections.
B. Fever and discomfort at the transplant site.
C. Severe low blood pressure and weight loss.
D. Rapid heart rate and headaches.

28) Nurse Benjamin is explaining to a group of nursing students about a type of renal failure characterized by a gradual, stealthy process of kidney destruction, often remaining unnoticed for years while nephrons are damaged and the renal mass decreases. Is he discussing:

A. Acute renal failure
B. Chronic renal failure

29) Nurse Elizabeth is advising a patient with renal failure on dietary modifications. Keeping in mind the condition of the patient’s kidneys, which kind of diet should she recommend?

A. Restricted protein, low carbohydrate, sufficient calories.
B. Sufficient calories, high carbohydrate, restricted protein.
C. Low calorie, restricted protein, low carbohydrate.
D. High protein, high carbohydrate, low calorie.

30) Nurse Collins is attending to a patient suffering from acute renal failure. Suddenly, the patient’s urinary output spikes to 150 ml/hr, leading Nurse Collins to deduce that the patient has transitioned into the second phase of acute renal failure. During this phase, what signs and symptoms should she be vigilant about?

A. Excessive fluid volume, high potassium levels, and high sodium levels.
B. Insufficient fluid volume, no significant changes in serum sodium and potassium levels.
C. Excessive fluid volume, low potassium levels, and high sodium levels.
D. Insufficient fluid volume, erratic changes in serum sodium and potassium levels.

31) As Nurse Miranda is discussing potential complications of hemodialysis with her team, she highlights the most common issue they need to anticipate. Which of these complications is typically the most frequent during hemodialysis?

A. Dialysis-induced dementia
B. Hemorrhage
C. Hypertension
D. Infections

32) A week into treating a patient with acute renal failure, Nurse Alex notices that the patient has transitioned into the diuretic phase. As he continues to provide care, which condition should he be particularly watchful for during this phase?

A. Metabolic acidosis
B. Fluid volume deficit
C. Progression to chronic renal failure
D. Elevated potassium levels

33) During a lecture to nursing students, Nurse Annabelle is discussing the serious consequences of kidney failure. She mentions that one particular condition stands as the leading cause of death when kidneys fail. Which condition is she referring to?

A. Elevated potassium levels (hyperkalemia)
B. Low sodium levels (hyponatremia)
C. Low potassium levels (hypokalemia)
D. Elevated sodium levels (hypernatremia)

34) Nurse Liam is examining the latest lab results for a patient with acute renal failure. As he pores over the data, one particular result grabs his attention, prompting him to immediately report it to the physician. Which result is he most likely concerned about?

A. Hemoglobin level of 10.3 mg/dl.
B. Venous blood pH at 7.30.
C. Serum potassium concentration at 6 mEq/L.
D. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) at 50 mg/dl.

35) Nurse Isabel is caring for a patient with chronic renal failure. The patient’s kidneys now possess too few nephrons to efficiently excrete metabolic waste and manage fluid and electrolyte balance. This advanced stage of chronic renal failure is referred to as what?

A. Acute tubular necrosis
B. Dialysis stage
C. End-stage renal disease (ESRD)
D. Renal insufficiency

36) Nurse Aiden is preparing to educate a group of student nurses about renal failure. He wants to highlight a type of renal failure that is characterized by a sudden and sharp deterioration in kidney function. Which type of renal failure is he referring to?

A. Acute Renal Failure
B. Chronic Renal Failure

37) Nurse Mia is conducting a teaching session about the renal system for her junior colleagues. She’s explaining the complex mechanism by which the kidneys regulate sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) levels. Which option best captures the process Mia is describing?

A. The kidneys trigger the release of aldosterone, which in turn controls renin. Renin then initiates the release of angiotensin, which governs Na+ and K+ levels.
B. The kidneys stimulate the release of renin, which manages K+. They also release angiotensin, prompting the secretion of Na+.
C. The kidneys incite the release of renin, which governs angiotensin. The angiotensin then influences aldosterone, which in turn regulates the levels of Na+ and K+.

38) Nurse Hannah is teaching her patients about chronic kidney disease. She explains the purpose of anti-hypertensive therapy for those suffering from this condition. What is the primary goal of this treatment in the context of chronic renal disease?

A. To safeguard the cardiovascular system.
B. To provide dual protection for the renal and cardiovascular systems.
C. To shield the renal system.
D. None of the choices apply.

39) Nurse Jacob is explaining to a group of nursing students about a therapeutic process for renal failure. This process entails the continuous circulation of blood, either from artery to vein or vein to vein, wherein excess water and solutes are filtered out and directed into a collection device. As necessary, fluid can be supplemented with a balanced electrolyte solution during the treatment. What is the term for this procedure?

A. Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
B. Continuous Cyclic Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD)
C. Hemodialysis (HD)
D. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT)

40) Nurse Mason is sharing an example with his students about a particular type of renal failure. He explains that this form of failure is brought about by an obstruction in the flow of urine, potentially due to an enlarged prostate or a tumor blocking the urethra, or even by calculi obstructing the ureter or kidney pelvis. Can the students identify the type of renal failure he is describing?

A. Perirenal Failure
B. Intrarenal Failure
C. Prerenal Failure
D. Postrenal Failure

41) Nurse Parker is instructing her nursing students about various factors that can cause damage to kidney tissue. She asks her students if they can recall the name of these damaging agents. Which term is she referring to?

A. Nephrons
B. Nephrotoxins
C. Enterotoxic Agents
D. Immune Response Elements

42) In a busy morning shift, Nurse Wilson finds himself managing a patient exhibiting symptoms such as fluid volume excess, edema due to salt and water retention, hypertension, Azotemia, hyperkalemia, muscle weakness, nausea, diarrhea, and high serum creatinine and BUN levels. As he analyzes the case, he wonders which phase of Acute Renal Failure his patient could be in. Which phase is it?

A. Intrarenal Phase
B. Recovery Phase
C. Initiation Phase
D. Maintenance Phase

43) Nurse Jackson is assisting a patient advancing speedily toward End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The patient, anxious about his condition, inquires about the possibility of a kidney transplant. Considering the potential contraindications, Nurse Jackson knows that the patient’s eligibility for a kidney transplant might be compromised by:

A) Slight hearing loss.
B) Recent diagnosis of severe heart disease.
C) Prior appendectomy.
D) Uncomplicated past orthopedic surgery.

44) In the midst of her bustling shift, Nurse Madison has to administer medication to a patient who is going to have their serum creatinine levels tested. She has to ensure that the medication she gives will not tamper with either the secretion of creatinine or the assay used to gauge its serum concentration. Which medication can she safely administer from the following options?

A. The medication famously known as a stomach acid reducer, Cimetidine.
B. An antibiotic frequently used, Cefoxitin.
C. The commonly used pain reliever and anti-inflammatory, Ibuprofen.
D. A medication often utilized in combination with others to fight bacterial infections, Trimethoprim.

45) Nurse Olivia, with her years of expertise, is vigilantly attending to a female patient who is experiencing her inaugural session of dialysis due to acute renal failure. Olivia knows that she must keep a close eye out for dialysis equilibrium syndrome, a complication that often occurs during the initial dialysis treatments. If this syndrome manifests, what signs and symptoms can Olivia expect to observe in her patient?

A. Is it possible that she might experience a drop in blood pressure, a rapid heart rate, and rapid breathing?
B. Could the patient show signs of confusion, complain of a headache, or even experience seizures?
C. Might the patient report sudden bone pain and display signs of confusion?
D. Could the patient exhibit weakness, express feelings of tingling, and develop abnormal heart rhythms?

46) Nurse Ethan is advising a patient suffering from chronic renal failure on the importance of keeping track of weight changes. He wants to make sure the patient knows when it’s essential to report any weight changes to the doctor. Which of the following scenarios should he highlight as a crucial one for notifying the physician?

A. A weight decrease of 2 pounds within a span of 5 days.
B. A weight increase of 2 pounds over a 2-day duration.
C. A reduction of 5 pounds over a 5-day period.
D. An increase of 5 pounds within a short period of 2 days.

47) As Nurse Tristan attends to a male patient grappling with acute renal failure, he knows to anticipate specific treatments. In this case, he should expect the use of hypertonic glucose, insulin infusions, and sodium bicarbonate to alleviate which of the following conditions?

A. An excessive level of potassium in the blood, otherwise known as Hyperkalemia.
B. A deficiency of potassium in the blood, referred to as Hypokalemia.
C. An overly high sodium level in the blood, termed Hypernatremia.
D. An abnormally high level of calcium in the blood, known as Hypercalcemia.

48) Nurse Avery is attending to a female patient suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The patient expresses mixed feelings, stating she resents being dependent on the dialysis machine, yet feels relieved about starting dialysis as it will allow her to consume whatever she wishes. Drawing from this dialogue, which nursing diagnosis should Avery identify for her patient?

A. A risk for imbalanced nutrition, leaning towards an excess, due to an increased dietary intake.
B. Anxiety related to the perceived threat to her health status and role functioning.
C. Ineffective management of the therapeutic regimen due to a lack of understanding about the treatment plan.
D. Self-esteem disturbance stemming from dependence on dialysis.

49) Nurse Andrew is presenting a lecture on urinary system health to his patients. One topic of interest is the acidity of urine. He poses the following question to his audience, “What is the typical acidity level of urine?”

A. Neutral, with a pH of around 7.
B. Alkaline, with a pH greater than 7.
C. Extremely acidic, with a pH below 3.
D. Slightly acidic, with a pH range of 6-7.

50) Nurse Samantha was deep in conversation with a colleague about one of her patients. The patient, a middle-aged man, had been exhibiting signs of lethargy, confusion, anorexia, and nausea.

As Samantha listed out the patient’s symptoms, she highlighted that these conditions are often associated with the metabolic disruptions brought on by a certain medical state. She asked her colleague, “What’s the medical term we use when these metabolic impairments, including Hyperkalemia, Acidosis, Hyperlipidemia, Hyperuricemia, and malnutrition, come into play?”

A. Uremic Syndrome
B. Exposure to Nephrotoxic Agents.
C. Presence of Hematuria.
D. Development of Oliguria.

51) Nurse Michael was providing education to a group of nursing students during their clinical rotation in the nephrology unit. One of his patients had recently suffered a sudden loss in kidney function due to a combination of severe hypertension, exposure to harmful substances, and muscle tissue breakdown from a heatstroke. He asked his students, “This patient’s condition involves acute damage to renal tissue and nephrons, as well as acute tubular necrosis, leading to a drastic drop in tubular and glomerular function. What type of renal failure are we dealing with here?”

A. Perirenal Failure
B. Intrarenal Failure
C. Prerenal Failure
D. Postrenal Failure

52) Nurse Liam was conducting a health teaching session for patients at risk of kidney disease. He explained how some initial signs could be subtle and easily overlooked. One of the potential early indicators was a decrease in the ability to concentrate, alongside alterations in urine concentration and volume. He then posed a question to his audience, “Is it accurate to say that early signs of kidney disease often include a reduced ability in the concentration and dilution of urine?”

A. True
B. False

53) Nurse Jane was assisting a patient who had been recently diagnosed with acute renal failure. The patient, having done some research, wanted to understand the complications associated with his condition better. He asked Jane, “What is the most significant complication that I should be aware of as someone suffering from acute renal failure?”

A. Severe Constipation
B. Dysfunction of Platelets
C. Development of Anemia
D. Occurrence of Infections

54) After an intensive hemodialysis session at Sunshine Care Dialysis Center, Nurse Gray finds her patient writhing in discomfort. The patient laments a throbbing headache, waves of nausea, and an unshakeable restlessness. Prompted by these symptoms, she considers, “What would be the most suitable course of action to take under such circumstances?”

A. Keep a close observation of the patient.
B. Administer anti-nausea medication to the patient.
C. Contact the attending physician promptly.
D. Adjust the bed to elevate the patient’s head.

55) During a lively discussion at the University Hospital nursing station, Nurse Davis ponders on a physiology-related query. She asks, “On an average day, how much potassium chloride (KCL) do healthy kidneys manage to eliminate?”

A. 1 gram
B. 3 milligrams
C. 6 to 8 grams
D. 6 to 8 milligrams

56) At Springfield Clinic, Nurse Johnson is overseeing a patient who’s been prescribed continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). She questions, “In the context of CAPD, after how many hours does the patient need to empty their peritoneal cavity and refresh the dialysate?”

A. 48 hours
B. 6-8 hours
C. 24 hours
D. 4-6 hours

57) While caring for a patient with compromised kidney function at Serenity Medical Center, Nurse Thompson reflects on her pharmacology knowledge. She considers, “Which among these medications is known to be potentially harmful to the kidneys, exhibiting nephrotoxic properties?”

A. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
B. Sodium bicarbonate or Potassium bicarbonate
C. Diuretics
D. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

58) At Meadowland General Hospital, Nurse Philips admits a patient diagnosed with early stage chronic renal failure. As she carries out her assessment, she wonders, “Which of these symptoms is typically associated with a patient in the early stages of chronic renal failure?”

A. Increased thirst, known as polydipsia.
B. Reduced urine output, known as oliguria.
C. Complete cessation of urine output, known as anuria.
D. Excessive urination, known as polyuria.

59) In the tranquility of a home-care setting, Nurse Wilson assists a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The patient remarks that the dialysate in the collection bag appears cloudy. Nurse Wilson considers, “What could be the potential explanation for the cloudiness observed in the dialysate collection bag?”

A. The patient might be suffering from an infection, possibly peritonitis.
B. The patient requires a kidney transplant.
C. Medication has been added to the dialysate.
D. The patient needs to switch their dialysate.

60) During a seminar at Central City Hospital, Nurse Baker learns about the severity of end-stage renal disease. She recalls, “What is the threshold glomerular filtration rate (GFR) – in ml/min per 1.73m2 – that defines end-stage renal disease?”

A. Less than 10.
B. Less than 15.
C. Less than 30.
D. Less than 45.

61) While caring for a patient with acute renal failure at Harmony Medical Center, Nurse Anderson reviews the various phases of the condition. She recalls, “During which phase of acute renal failure does oliguria occur, rendering the kidneys unable to effectively remove metabolic wastes, water, electrolytes, and acids?”

A. Recycle phase
B. Initiation phase
C. Maintenance phase
D. Recovery phase

62) At City Cross Hospital, Nurse Mitchell is evaluating a patient suspected of producing dilute urine. She considers, “Which tests and their corresponding results can confirm the presence of dilute urine?”

A. Consistent Specific Gravity (1.010), and/or constant osmolality (300 mOsm/l).
B. Serum Creatinine level of (1.5 mg/dl).
C. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) of (100 ml/min), and/or Specific Gravity (1.030).
D. Increased urine osmolality (>300 mOsm/l) and high urine specific gravity (>1.010).

63) While conducting a urinalysis at Heartland Regional Medical Center, Nurse Benson comes across a quandary concerning the standard components of urine. She muses, “Which of the following substances is typically not detected in urine?”

A. Ammonia
B. Urea
C. Proteins
D. Sodium

64) While caring for a patient with advanced renal disease at Riverside General Hospital, Nurse Bennett ponders over the severity of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). She questions, “What is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) threshold in milliliters per minute that defines the occurrence of ESRD?”

A. Less than 5 ml.
B. Less than 10 ml.
C. Less than 15 ml.
D. Less than 25 ml.

65) During her shift at Evergreen Hospital, Nurse Patterson encounters a patient with a suspected buildup of toxins in their blood. She ponders, “What is the medical term for the accumulation of toxins in one’s bloodstream?”

A. Urticaria
B. Uremia
C. Urethrorrhea
D. Urethritis

Answers and Rationales

1) Correct answer:

B. Prerenal. Prerenal kidney failure occurs due to a decrease in the blood flow to the kidneys. Under normal conditions, kidneys receive about 20% of the cardiac output, making them highly dependent on an adequate blood supply for their function. When blood flow decreases significantly, it can lead to renal ischemia, which if not promptly corrected, can lead to permanent kidney damage. This is often caused by conditions that reduce systemic circulation like heart failure, which is Mr. Brown’s case. Another common cause is dehydration, where the volume of fluid in the body is significantly reduced.

To illustrate, imagine the kidneys as a sponge that needs a constant flow of water to stay moist and function properly; if the water supply is cut off, the sponge will dry out and won’t be able to do its job.

Incorrect answer options:

A. Perirenal. The term perirenal means ‘around the kidney’. It does not denote a type of renal failure but is often used in the context of perirenal abscesses or fat.

C. Intrarenal. Intrarenal kidney failure is caused by direct damage to the kidneys by inflammation, toxins, drugs, infection, or reduced blood supply within the kidney itself. Unlike prerenal failure, where the issue is before the kidney (blood supply), intrarenal failure involves problems with the kidney’s structure or functi