Nursing Bullets: Maternal and Child Health Nursing IV

  1. If a fetus has late decelerations (a sign of fetal hypoxia), the nurse should instruct the mother to lie on her left side and then administer 8 to 10 L of oxygen per minute by mask or cannula. The nurse should notify the physician. The side-lying position removes pressure on the inferior vena cava.
  2. Oxytocin (Pitocin) promotes lactation and uterine contractions.
  3. Lanugo covers the fetus’s body until about 20 weeks’ gestation. Then it begins to disappear from the face, trunk, arms, and legs, in that order.
  4. In a neonate, hypoglycemia causes temperature instability, hypotonia, jitteriness, and seizures. Premature, postmature, small-for-gestational-age, and large-for-gestational-age neonates are susceptible to this disorder.
  5. Neonates typically need to consume 50 to 55 cal per pound of body weight daily.
  6. Because oxytocin (Pitocin) stimulates powerful uterine contractions during labor, it must be administered under close observation to help prevent maternal and fetal distress.
  7. During fetal heart rate monitoring, variable decelerations indicate compression or prolapse of the umbilical cord.
  8. Cytomegalovirus is the leading cause of congenital viral infection.
  9. Tocolytic therapy is indicated in premature labor, but contraindicated in fetal death, fetal distress, or severe hemorrhage.
  10. Through ultrasonography, the biophysical profile assesses fetal well-being by measuring fetal breathing movements, gross body movements, fetal tone, reactive fetal heart rate (nonstress test), and qualitative amniotic fluid volume.
  11. A neonate whose mother has diabetes should be assessed for hyperinsulinism.
  12. In a patient with preeclampsia, epigastric pain is a late symptom and requires immediate medical intervention.
  13. After a stillbirth, the mother should be allowed to hold the neonate to help her come to terms with the death.
  14. Molding is the process by which the fetal head changes shape to facilitate movement through the birth canal.
  15. If a woman receives a spinal block before delivery, the nurse should monitor the patient’s blood pressure closely.
  16. If a woman suddenly becomes hypotensive during labor, the nurse should increase the infusion rate of I.V. fluids as prescribed.
  17. The best technique for assessing jaundice in a neonate is to blanch the tip of the nose or the area just above the umbilicus.
  18. During fetal heart monitoring, early deceleration is caused by compression of the head during labor.
  19. After the placenta is delivered, the nurse may add oxytocin (Pitocin) to the patient’s I.V. solution, as prescribed, to promote postpartum involution of the uterus and stimulate lactation.
  20. Pica is a craving to eat nonfood items, such as dirt, crayons, chalk, glue, starch, or hair. It may occur during pregnancy and can endanger the fetus.
  21. A pregnant patient should take folic acid because this nutrient is required for rapid cell division.
  22. A woman who is taking clomiphene (Clomid) to induce ovulation should be informed of the possibility of multiple births with this drug.
  23. If needed, cervical suturing is usually done between 14 and 18 weeks’ gestation to reinforce an incompetent cervix and maintain pregnancy. The suturing is typically removed by 35 weeks’ gestation.
    During the first trimester, a pregnant woman should avoid all drugs unless doing so would adversely affect her health.
  24. Most drugs that a breast-feeding mother takes appear in breast milk.
  25. The Food and Drug Administration has established the following five categories of drugs based on their potential for causing birth defects: A, no evidence of risk; B, no risk found in animals, but no studies have been done in women; C, animal studies have shown an adverse effect, but the drug may be beneficial to women despite the potential risk; D, evidence of risk, but its benefits may outweigh its risks; and X, fetal anomalies noted, and the risks clearly outweigh the potential benefits.
  26. A patient with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy commonly has sharp pain in the lower abdomen, with spotting and cramping. She may have abdominal rigidity; rapid, shallow respirations; tachycardia; and shock.
  27. A patient with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy commonly has sharp pain in the lower abdomen, with spotting and cramping. She may have abdominal rigidity; rapid, shallow respirations; tachycardia; and shock.
  28. The mechanics of delivery are engagement, descent and flexion, internal rotation, extension, external rotation, restitution, and expulsion.
  29. A probable sign of pregnancy, McDonald’s sign is characterized by an ease in flexing the body of the uterus against the cervix.
  30. Amenorrhea is a probable sign of pregnancy.
  31. A pregnant woman’s partner should avoid introducing air into the vagina during oral sex because of the possibility of air embolism.
  32. The presence of human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine is a probable sign of pregnancy.
    Radiography isn’t usually used in a pregnant woman because it may harm the developing fetus. If radiography is essential, it should be performed only after 36 weeks’ gestation.
  33. A pregnant patient who has had rupture of the membranes or who is experiencing vaginal bleeding shouldn’t engage in sexual intercourse.
  34. Milia may occur as pinpoint spots over a neonate’s nose.
  35. The duration of a contraction is timed from the moment that the uterine muscle begins to tense to the moment that it reaches full relaxation. It’s measured in seconds.
  36. The union of a male and a female gamete produces a zygote, which divides into the fertilized ovum.
  37. The first menstrual flow is called menarche and may be anovulatory (infertile).
  38. Spermatozoa (or their fragments) remain in the vagina for 72 hours after sexual intercourse.
  39. Prolactin stimulates and sustains milk production.
  40. Strabismus is a normal finding in a neonate.
  41. A postpartum patient may resume sexual intercourse after the perineal or uterine wounds heal (usually within 4 weeks after delivery).
  42. A pregnant staff member shouldn’t be assigned to work with a patient who has cytomegalovirus infection because the virus can be transmitted to the fetus.
  43. Fetal demise is death of the fetus after viability.
  44. Respiratory distress syndrome develops in premature neonates because their alveoli lack surfactant.
  45. The most common method of inducing labor after artificial rupture of the membranes is oxytocin (Pitocin) infusion.
  46. After the amniotic membranes rupture, the initial nursing action is to assess the fetal heart rate.
  47. The most common reasons for cesarean birth are malpresentation, fetal distress, cephalopelvic disproportion, pregnancy-induced hypertension, previous cesarean birth, and inadequate progress in labor.
  48. Amniocentesis increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, trauma to the fetus or placenta, premature labor, infection, and Rh sensitization of the fetus.
  49. After amniocentesis, abdominal cramping or spontaneous vaginal bleeding may indicate complications.
  50. To prevent her from developing Rh antibodies, an Rh-negative primigravida should receive Rho(D) immune globulin (RhoGAM) after delivering an Rh-positive neonate.