To avoid contact with blood and other body fluids, the nurse should wear gloves when handling the neonate until after the first bath is given.
If a breast-fed infant is content, has good skin turgor, an adequate number of wet diapers, and normal weight gain, the mother’s milk supply is assumed to be adequate.
In the supine position, a pregnant patient’s enlarged uterus impairs venous return from the lower half of the body to the heart, resulting in supine hypotensive syndrome, or inferior vena cava syndrome.
Tocolytic agents used to treat preterm labor include terbutaline (Brethine), ritodrine (Yutopar), and magnesium sulfate.
A pregnant woman who has hyperemesis gravidarum may require hospitalization to treat dehydration and starvation.
Diaphragmatic hernia is one of the most urgent neonatal surgical emergencies. By compressing and displacing the lungs and heart, this disorder can cause respiratory distress shortly after birth.
Common complications of early pregnancy (up to 20 weeks’ gestation) include fetal loss and serious threats to maternal health.
Fetal embodiment is a maternal developmental task that occurs in the second trimester. During this stage, the mother may complain that she never gets to sleep because the fetus always gives her a thump when she tries.
Visualization in pregnancy is a process in which the mother imagines what the child she’s carrying is like and becomes acquainted with it.
Hemodilution of pregnancy is the increase in blood volume that occurs during pregnancy. The increased volume consists of plasma and causes an imbalance between the ratio of red blood cells to plasma and a resultant decrease in hematocrit.
Mean arterial pressure of greater than 100 mm Hg after 20 weeks of pregnancy is considered hypertension.
The treatment for supine hypotension syndrome (a condition that sometimes occurs in pregnancy) is to have the patient lie on her left side.
A contributing factor in dependent edema in the pregnant patient is the increase of femoral venous pressure from 10 mm Hg (normal) to 18 mm Hg (high).
Hyperpigmentation of the pregnant patient’s face, formerly called chloasma and now referred to as melasma, fades after delivery.
The hormone relaxin, which is secreted first by the corpus luteum and later by the placenta, relaxes the connective tissue and cartilage of the symphysis pubis and the sacroiliac joint to facilitate passage of the fetus during delivery.
Progesterone maintains the integrity of the pregnancy by inhibiting uterine motility.
Ladin’s sign, an early indication of pregnancy, causes softening of a spot on the anterior portion of the uterus, just above the uterocervical juncture.
During pregnancy, the abdominal line from the symphysis pubis to the umbilicus changes from linea alba to linea nigra.
In neonates, cold stress affects the circulatory, regulatory, and respiratory systems.
Obstetric data can be described by using the F/TPAL system:
F/T: Full-term delivery at 38 weeks or longer
P: Preterm delivery between 20 and 37 weeks
A: Abortion or loss of fetus before 20 weeks
L: Number of children living (if a child has died, further explanation is needed to clarify the discrepancy in numbers).
Parity doesn’t refer to the number of infants delivered, only the number of deliveries.
Women who are carrying more than one fetus should be encouraged to gain 35 to 45 lb (15.5 to 20.5 kg) during pregnancy.
The recommended amount of iron supplement for the pregnant patient is 30 to 60 mg daily.
Drinking six alcoholic beverages a day or a single episode of binge drinking in the first trimester can cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
Chorionic villus sampling is performed at 8 to 12 weeks of pregnancy for early identification of genetic defects.
In percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, a blood sample is obtained from the umbilical cord to detect anemia, genetic defects, and blood incompatibility as well as to assess the need for blood transfusions.
The period between contractions is referred to as the interval, or resting phase. During this phase, the uterus and placenta fill with blood and allow for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients.
In a patient who has hypertonic contractions, the uterus doesn’t have an opportunity to relax and there is no interval between contractions. As a result, the fetus may experience hypoxia or rapid delivery may occur.
Two qualities of the myometrium are elasticity, which allows it to stretch yet maintain its tone, and contractility, which allows it to shorten and lengthen in a synchronized pattern.
During crowning, the presenting part of the fetus remains visible during the interval between contractions.
Uterine atony is failure of the uterus to remain firmly contracted.
The major cause of uterine atony is a full bladder.
If the mother wishes to breast-feed, the neonate should be nursed as soon as possible after delivery.
A smacking sound, milk dripping from the side of the mouth, and sucking noises all indicate improper placement of the infant’s mouth over the nipple.
Before feeding is initiated, an infant should be burped to expel air from the stomach.
Most authorities strongly encourage the continuation of breast-feeding on both the affected and the unaffected breast of patients with mastitis.
Neonates are nearsighted and focus on items that are held 10″ to 12″ (25 to 30.5 cm) away.
In a neonate, low-set ears are associated with chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome.
Meconium is usually passed in the first 24 hours; however, passage may take up to 72 hours.
Boys who are born with hypospadias shouldn’t be circumcised at birth because the foreskin may be needed for constructive surgery.
In the neonate, the normal blood glucose level is 45 to 90 mg/dl.
Hepatitis B vaccine is usually given within 48 hours of birth.
Hepatitis B immune globulin is usually given within 12 hours of birth.
HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome is an unusual variation of pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein is detectable at 7 weeks of gestation and peaks in the third trimester. High levels detected between the 16th and 18th weeks are associated with neural tube defects. Low levels are associated with Down syndrome.
An arrest of descent occurs when the fetus doesn’t descend through the pelvic cavity during labor. It’s commonly associated with cephalopelvic disproportion, and cesarean delivery may be required.
A late sign of preeclampsia is epigastric pain as a result of severe liver edema.
In the patient with preeclampsia, blood pressure returns to normal during the puerperal period.
To obtain an estriol level, urine is collected for 24 hours.
An estriol level is used to assess fetal well-being and maternal renal functioning as well as to monitor a pregnancy that’s complicated by diabetes.
A pregnant patient with vaginal bleeding shouldn’t have a pelvic examination.