Antiarthritic drugs include gold compounds that prevent and suppress arthritis in selected patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other anti arthritis drugs that helps block the inflammation and tissue damage of rheumatoid arthritis.
Table of Common Drugs and Generic Names
Here is a table of commonly encountered immune system drugs, their generic names, and brand names:
|Classification||Generic Name||Brand Name|
|gold sodium thiomalate||Aurolate|
Disease Spotlight: Arthritis
- Arthritis is a group of more than 100 types of joint pain or disease and related conditions involving inflammatory process in the joints which can cause pain and bone It affects people of all ages, sexes, and races. It is the leading cause of disability in America.
- Symptoms include swelling, pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion. Over time, this will lead to permanent joint changes.
- NSAIDs are often used in rheumatoid arthritis (an autoimmune disorder affecting the small joints) and osteoarthritis (arthritis of the weight-bearing joints common in older people).
- Gold salts treatment (chrysotherapy) is indicated for patients with rheumatic inflammatory conditions who do not respond to the usual anti-inflammatory therapies. Chrysotherapy involves macrophages taking up gold which then inhibit phagocytosis.
The desired and beneficial action of gold compounds is:
- Inhibition of phagocytosis and release of lysosomal enzymes leading to inhibited tissue destruction. This action allows gold salts to suppress and prevent some arthritis and synovitis.
Gold compounds are indicated for the following medical conditions:
- Treatment for selected cases of rheumatoid and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in patients whose disease have been unresponsive to standard therapy. However, they only prevent further damage and so are most effective if used early in the disease.
- Auranofin is an oral agent for long-term therapy of rheumatic disorders.
- Gold sodium thiomalate is an injected drug for early treatment of rheumatic disorders.
Here are the characteristic interactions of gold compounds and the body in terms of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion:
|T1/2: 3-7 days
Excretion: urine and feces
Contraindications and Cautions
The following are contraindications and cautions for the use of gold compounds:
- Any known allergy to gold
- Severe diabetes
- Congestive heart failure
- Severe debilitation
- Renal or hepatic impairment
- Blood dyscrasias
- Recent radiation treatment
- History of toxic levels of heavy metals
- Pregnancy or lactation
Use of gold compounds may result to these adverse effects:
- Skin: dermatitis, pruritus, exfoliative dermatitis, allergic reactions ranging from flushing, fainting, and dizziness to anaphylactic shock
- GI: stomatitis, glossitis, gingivitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, colitis, diarrhea, other GI inflammation
- Respiratory: gold bronchitis, interstitial pneumonitis
- Hema: bone marrow depression
- GU: vaginitis, nephrotic syndrome
The following are drug-drug interactions involved in the use of gold compounds:
- Penicillamine, antimalarials, cytotoxic drugs, immunosuppressive agents: potential for severe toxicity
Nursing considerations for patients receiving antiarthritics are similar to those for patients receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and related agents.