Health, Illness and Wellness Practice Exam

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1. There are different ways to look on health and illness. When formulating a definition of “health,” a person should consider that health, within its current definition, is:

  1. The absence of disease
  2. A function of the physiological state
  3. A state of well being involving the whole person
  4. The ability to pursue activities of daily living

2. Which one of the following is one of the main, overreaching goals for Healthy People

  1. Reduction of health care costs.
  2. Elimination of health disparities.
  3. Investigation of substance abuse.
  4. Determination of acceptable morbidity rates.

3. A nurse is using a holistic approach with a client. To incorporate all of the factors that may influence the client, the nurse should respond to the client as follows:

  1. “I would like you to perform this exercise once a day.”
  2. “Your physician has left orders for you to follow.”
  3. “The laboratory tests reveal the need to reduce your daily percentage of fat grams.”
  4. “Adapting your diet and activity will lower your blood glucose levels.”

4. The client states, “Heart disease runs in our family. My blood pressure has been high.” The nurse determines that this is an example of the client’s:

  1. Risk factors
  2. Active strategy
  3. Negative health behavior
  4. Health beliefs

5. A client is discharged from the hospital to his home after a heart attack. The nurse recognizes the restrictions in the client’s diet and activity. In using the Stages of Health Behavior Change as a guide, the nurse recognizes that the client is most likely to begin to accept information on diet and exercise during the:

  1. Contemplation stage
  2. Preparation stage
  3. Action stage
  4. Maintenance stage

6. When assessing the external variables that influence a client’s health beliefs and practices, the nurse must consider his:

  1. Religious practices
  2. Reaction to the heart disease
  3. Educational background
  4. Income status

7. The client is a paraplegic and is in the hospital for an electrolyte imbalance. Based on the levels of prevention, the client is receiving care at the:

  1. Primary prevention level
  2. Secondary prevention level
  3. Tertiary prevention level
  4. Health promotion level

8. The nurse incorporates the levels of prevention as a basis for the types of client needs that are evident and the nursing care that is provided. Which of the following activities of the nurse is an example of tertiary level preventive care giving?

  1. Teaching a client how to irrigate a new colostomy
  2. Providing a class on hygiene for an elementary school class
  3. Informing a client that immunizations for her infant are available through the health department
  4. Arranging for a hospice nurse to visit with the family of a client with cancer

9. Client assessment provides the nurse with necessary information for the development of a plan of care. Risk factors are important to identify to assist the client, if possible, to respond and modify his or her lifestyle. Which one of the following assessment findings indicates a lifestyle risk factor?

  1. Obesity
  2. Sunbathing
  3. Overcrowded housing
  4. Industrial-based occupation

10. In the Health Belief Model, the nurse recognizes that the focus is placed on the:

  1. Basic human needs for survival
  2. Functioning of the individual in all dimensions
  3. Relation of perceptions and compliance with therapy
  4. Multidimensional nature of clients and their interaction with the environment

11. The client received a kidney transplant and is now unable to work. She is worried about her husband’s stress level because of her illness and the need for him to take over her daily activities in the home. The client is in the process of adapting to a change in:

  1. Body image
  2. Illness behavior
  3. Family dynamics
  4. Self-concept
Answers and Rationale
  1. Answer C. When formulating a definition of “health,” a person should consider the total person, as well as the environment in which the person lives. Health generally implies a state of well being, which is ultimately defined in terms of the individual.
  2. Answer B. Two overarching goals for Healthy People 2010 are (1) to increase quality and years of healthy life, and (2) to eliminate health disparities.
  3. Answer D. Using a holistic approach involves consideration of all factors that may affect a client’s level of well being in all dimensions, not just physical health. Factors such as diet and exercise can influence one’s level of health.
  4. Answer A. Risk factors are anything that increases the vulnerability of an individual or group to an illness or accident. This client is identifying the physical risk factor of genetic predisposition to heart disease.
  5. Answer A. During the contemplation stage, the client is considering a change within the next 6 months. The client may be ambivalent initially, but will more likely accept information as more belief develops in the value of change.
  6. Answer D. External variables influencing a person’s health beliefs and practices include family practices, cultural background, and socioeconomic factors, such as income. Economic variable s may affect a client’s level of health by increasing the risk for disease and influencing how or at what point the client enters the health care system. A person’s compliance with the treatment to maintain or improve health also is affected by economic status.
  7. Answer B. The secondary prevention level focuses on early diagnosis and prompt treatment as well as on disability limitations. Adequate treatment for the electrolyte imbalance is sought to prevent further complications.
  8. Answer D. Tertiary prevention occurs when a defect or disability is permanent and irreversible. Care of the hospice nurse at this level aims to help the client and the client’s family achieve as high a level of functioning as possible, despite the limitations caused by the cancer.
  9. Answer B. Excessive sunbathing is a lifestyle risk factor for skin cancer.
  10. Answer C. In the Health Belief Model, the nurse focuses on the relation between a person’s beliefs and health behaviors. By focusing on the client’s perceptions of health, the nurse is better able to understand and predict how a client will comply with health care therapies.
  11. Answer C. The effects of illness on the client and family have created change in family dynamics. Family dynamics is the process by which the family functions, makes decisions, gives support to individual members, and copes with everyday changes and challenges.