Medical-Surgical Nursing Exam 11

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1. According to Maslow, which of the following categories of needs represents the most basic?

  1. Physiologic needs
    Physiologic needs must be met before an individual is able to move toward psychological health and well-being.
  2. Self-actualization
    Self-actualization is the highest level of need
  3. Safety and security needs
    Safety and security needs, while lower level, are not essential to physiologic survival.
  4. Belongingness
    Belongingness and affection needs are not essential to physiologic survival.

2. Which of the following statements reflects the World Health Organization’s definition of health?

  1. A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.
    Such a definition, however, does not allow for any variations in the degrees of wellness or illness.
  2. A condition of homeostatis and adaptation.
    The WHO definition addresses physical, mental, and social dimensions of being.
  3. An individual’s location along a wellness–illness continuum.
    The concept of a health–illness continuum allows for a greater range in describing a person’s health than the definition provided by the WHO.
  4. A fluid, ever-changing balance reflected through physical, mental, and social behavior.
    The WHO definition does not allow for any variations in the degrees of wellness and illness.

3. Which of the following statements defines culture?

  1. The learned patterns of behavior, beliefs, and values that can be attributed to a particular group of people.
    Included among characteristics that distinguish cultural groups are manner of dress, values, artifacts, and health beliefs and practices.
  2. A group of people distinguished by genetically transmitted material.
    A group of people distinguished by genetically transmitted material describes the term race.
  3. The status of belonging to a particular region by origin, birth, or naturalization.
    The status of belonging to a particular region by origin, birth, or naturalization describes the term nationality.
  4. The classification of a group based upon certain distinctive characteristics.
    The classification of a group based upon certain distinctive characteristics describes the term ethnicity.

4. The reason that case management has gained such prominence in health care can be traced to

  1. decreased cost of care associated with inpatient stay.
    The reasons case management has gained such prominence can be traced to the decreased cost of care associated with decreased length of hospital stay, coupled with rapid and frequent inter-unit transfers from specialty to standard care units.
  2. increased length of hospital stay.
    In general, length of hospital stay has decreased over the past 5 years.
  3. discharge from specialty care units to home.
    In general, patients are transferred from specialty care units to standard care units at least 24 hours prior to discharge.
  4. limited availability for inter-unit hospital transfers.
    In general, patients in acute care hospitals undergo frequent inter-unit transfers from specialty to standard care units.

5. A preferred provider organization is described as a

  1. business arrangement between hospitals and physicians.
    PPO’s usually contract to provide health care to subscribers, usually businesses, for a negotiated fee that often is discounted.
  2. prepaid group health practice system.
    A prepaid group health practice system is termed a health maintenance organization.
  3. limited insurance program.
    Insurance is a cost payment system of shared risk, not a health care delivery system.
  4. health care savings account program.
    A health care savings account program is an incentive program to consumers, not a health care delivery system.

6. Which of the following categories identifies the focus of community/public health nursing practice?

  1. Promoting and maintaining the health of populations and preventing and minimizing the progress of disease
    Although nursing interventions used by public health nurses might involve individuals, families, or small groups, the central focus remains promoting health and preventing disease in the entire community.
  2. Rehabilitation and restorative services
    Rehabilitation and restorative services are the focus of extended care facilities and home care nursing.
  3. Adaptation of hospital care to the home environment
    Adaptation of hospital care to the home environment is the focus of home nursing.
  4. Hospice care delivery
    Hospice care delivery refers to the delivery of services to the terminally ill.

7. A major goal for home care nurses is

  1. restoring maximum health function.
    Tertiary preventive nursing care, focusing on rehabilitation and restoring maximum health function, is a goal for home care nurses.
  2. promoting the health of populations.
    Promoting the health of populations is a focus of community/public health nursing.
  3. minimizing the progress of disease.
    Minimizing the progress of disease is a focus of community/public health nursing.
  4. maintaining the health of populations.
    Maintaining the health of populations is a focus of community/public health nursing.

8. In the United States, nurses performing invasive procedures need to be up-to-date with their immunizations, particularly

  1. hepatitis B.
    Hepatitis B is transmitted through contact with infected blood or plasma.
  2. hepatitis E.
    Hepatitis E is found mainly in underdeveloped countries with substandard sanitation and water quality.
  3. hepatitis A.
    hepatitis A is transmitted through the oral route from the feces and saliva of an infected person.
  4. hepatitis C.
    At present, immunization against hepatitis C is not available.

9. At what time during a patient’s hospital stay does discharge planning begin?

  1. Admission
    To prepare for early discharge and the possible need for follow-up in the home, discharge planning begins with the patient’s admission.
  2. Twenty-four hours prior to discharge
    Discharge planning requires identification of patient needs and anticipatory guidance and is not relegated to a specific time for beginning.
  3. The shift prior to discharge
    Discharge planning requires communication with and cooperation of the patient, family, and health care team and is not relegated to a specific time for beginning.
  4. By the third hospital day
    Discharge planning may require involvement of personnel and agencies in the planning process and is not relegated to a specific day of hospital stay.

10. The leading health problems of elementary school children include

  1. cancer.
    The leading health problems of elementary school children are injuries, infections, malnutrition, dental disease, and cancer.
  2. alcohol and drug abuse.
    Alcohol and drug abuse are leading health problems for high school students.
  3. mental and emotional problems.
    Mental and emotional problems are leading health problems for high school students.
  4. homicide.                                                                                                                                              Homicide is a leading health problem for high school children.

11. Which skill needed by the nurse to think critically involves identification of patient problems indicated by data?

  1. Analysis
    Analysis is used to identify patient problems indicated by data.
  2. Interpretation
    Interpretation is used to determine the significance of data that is gathered.
  3. Inferencing
    Inferences are used by the nurse to draw conclusions.
  4. Explanation
    Explanation is the justification of actions or interventions used to address patient problems and to help a patient move toward desired outcomes.

12. The ethics theory that focuses on ends or consequences of actions is the

  1. utilitarian theory.
    Utilitarian theory is based on the concept of the greatest good for the greatest number.
  2. formalist theory.
    Formalist theory argues that moral standards exist independently of the ends or consequences.
  3. deontological theory.
    Deontological theory argues that moral standards exist independently of the ends or consequences.
  4. adaptation theory.
    Adaptation theory is not an ethics theory.

13. Which of the following ethical principles refers to the duty to do good?

  1. Beneficence
    Beneficence is the duty to do good and the active promotion of benevolent acts.
  2. Fidelity
    Fidelity refers to the duty to be faithful to one’s commitments.
  3. Veracity
    Veracity is the obligation to tell the truth.
  4. Nonmaleficence
    Nonmaleficence is the duty not to inflict, as well as to prevent and remove, harm; it is more binding than beneficence.

14. During which step of the nursing process does the nurse analyze data related to the patient’s health status?

  1. Assessment
    Analysis of data is included as part of the assessment.
  2. Implementation
    Implementation is the actualization of the plan of care through nursing interventions.
  3. Diagnosis
    Diagnosis is the identification of patient problems.
  4. Evaluation
    Evaluation is the determination of the patient’s responses to the nursing interventions and the extent to which the outcomes have been achieved.

15. The basic difference between nursing diagnoses and collaborative problems is that

  1. nurses manage collaborative problems using physician-prescribed interventions.
    Collaborative problems are physiologic complications that nurses monitor to detect onset or changes and manage through the use of physician-prescribed and nursing-prescribed interventions to minimize the complications of events.
  2. collaborative problems can be managed by independent nursing interventions.
    Collaborative problems require both nursing and physician-prescribed interventions.
  3. nursing diagnoses incorporate physician-prescribed interventions.
    Nursing diagnoses can be managed by independent nursing interventions.
  4. nursing diagnoses incorporate physiologic complications that nurses monitor to detect change in status.
    Nursing diagnoses refer to actual or potential health problems that can be managed by independent nursing interventions.

16. Health education of the patient by the nurse

  1. is an independent function of nursing practice.
    Health education is an independent function of nursing practice and is included in all state nurse practice acts.
  2. requires a physician’s order.
    Teaching, as a function of nursing, is included in all state nurse practice acts.
  3. must be approved by the physician.
    Health education is a primary responsibility of the nursing profession.
  4. must focus on wellness issues.
    Health education by the nurse focuses on promoting, maintaining, and restoring health; preventing illness; and assisting people to adapt to the residual effects of illness.

17. Nonadherence to therapeutic regimens is a significant problem for which of the following age groups?

  1. Adults 65 and over
    Elderly people frequently have one or more chronic illnesses that are managed with numerous medications and complicated by periodic acute episodes, making adherence difficult.
  2. Teenagers
    Problems of teenagers, generally, are time limited and specific, and require promoting adherence to treatment to return to health.
  3. Children
    In general, the compliance of children depends on the compliance of their parents.
  4. Middle-aged adults
    Middle-aged adults, in general, have fewer health problems, thus promoting adherence.

18. Experiential readiness to learn refers to the patient’s

  1. past history with education and life experience.
    Experiential readiness refers to past experiences that influence a person’s ability to learn.
  2. emotional status.
    Emotional readiness refers to the patient’s acceptance of an existing illness or the threat of an illness and its influence on the ability to learn.
  3. acceptance of an existing illness.
    Emotional readiness refers to the patient’s acceptance of an existing illness or the threat of an illness and its influence on the ability to learn.
  4. ability to focus attention.
    Physical readiness refers to the patient’s ability to cope with physical problems and focus attention upon learning.

19. Asking the patient questions to determine if the person understands the health teaching provided would be included during which step of the nursing process?

  1. Evaluation
    Evaluation includes observing the person, asking questions, and comparing the patient’s behavioral responses with the expected outcomes.
  2. Assessment
    Assessment includes determining the patient’s readiness regarding learning.
  3. Planning and goals
    Planning includes identification of teaching strategies and writing the teaching plan.
  4. Implementation
    Implementation is the step during which the teaching plan is put into action.

20. Which of the following items is considered the single most important factor in assisting the health professional in arriving at a diagnosis or determining the person’s needs?

  1. History of present illness
    The history of the present illness is the single most important factor in assisting the health professional in arriving at a diagnosis or determining the person’s needs.
  2. Physical examination
    The physical examination is helpful but often only validates the information obtained from the history.
  3. Diagnostic test results
    Diagnostic test results can be helpful, but they often only verify rather than establish the diagnosis.
  4. Biographical data
    Biographical information puts the health history in context but does not focus the diagnosis.

21. Of the following areas for assessing the patient profile, which should be addressed after the others?

  1. Body image
    The patient is often less anxious when the interview progresses from information that is less personal to information that is more personal.
  2. Education
    Educational level is relatively impersonal and readily revealed by the patient.
  3. Occupation
    Occupation is relatively impersonal and readily revealed by the patient.
  4. Environment
    Housing, religion, and language are relatively impersonal and readily revealed by the patient.

22. Which of the following methods of physical examination refers to the translation of physical force into sound?

  1. Percussion
    Percussion translates the application of physical force into sound.
  2. Palpation
    Palpation refers to examination by non-forceful touching.
  3. Auscultation
    Auscultation refers to the skill of listening to sounds produced within the body created by movement of air or fluid.
  4. Manipulation
    Manipulation refers to the use of the hands to determine motion of a body part.

23. In which range of body mass index (BMI) are patients considered to have increased risk for problems associated with poor nutritionalstatus?

  1. Below 24
    Additionally, higher mortality rates in hospitalized patients and community-dwelling elderly are associated with individuals who have low BMI.
  2. 25-29
    Those who have a BMI of 25 to 29 are considered overweight.
  3. 30 to 39
    Those who have BMI of 30-39 are considered obese.
  4. Over 40
    Those who have BMI over 40 are considered extremely obese.

24. To calculate the ideal body weight for a woman, the nurse allows

  1. 100 pounds for 5 feet of height.
    To calculate the ideal body weight of a woman, the nurse allows 100 pounds for 5 feet of height and adds 5 pounds for each additional inch over 5 feet
  2. 106 pounds for 5 feet of height.
    The nurse allows 106 pounds for 5 feet of height in calculating the ideal body weight for a man.
  3. 6 pounds for each additional inch over 5 feet.
    The nurse adds 6 pounds for each additional inch over 5 feet in calculating the ideal body weight for a man.
  4. 80 pounds for 5 feet of height.
    Eighty pounds for 5 feet of height is too little.

25. A steady state within the body is termed

  1. homeostasis.
    When a change occurs that causes a body function to deviate from its stable range, processes are initiated to restore and maintain the steady state or homeostasis.
  2. constancy.
    Constancy refers to the balanced internal state of the human body maintained by physiologic and biochemical processes.
  3. adaptation.
    Adaptation refers to a constant, ongoing process that requires change in structure, function, or behavior so that the person is better suited to the environment.
  4. stress.
    Stress refers to a state produced by a change in the environment that is perceived as challenging, threatening, or damaging to the person’s dynamic balance or equilibrium.

26. Which of the following terms, according to Lazarus, refers to the process through which an event is evaluated with respect to what is at stake and what might and can be done?

  1. Cognitive appraisal
    The outcome of cognitive appraisal is identification of the situation as either stressful or non-stressful.
  2. Coping
    Coping consists of both cognitive and behavioral efforts made to manage the specific external or internal demand that taxes a person’s resources.
  3. Hardiness
    Hardiness is a personality characteristic that is composed of control, commitment, and challenge.
  4. Adaptation
    Lazarus believed adaptation was affected by emotion that subsumed stress and coping.

27. An increase in the number of new cells in an organ or tissue that is reversible when the stimulus for production of new cells is removed is termed

  1. hyperplasia.
    Hyperplasia occurs as cells multiply and are subjected to increased stimulation resulting in tissue mass enlargement.
  2. hypertrophy.
    Hypertrophy is an increase in size and bulk of tissue that does not result from an increased number of cells.
  3. atrophy.
    Atrophy refers to reduction in size of a structure after having come to full maturity.
  4. neoplasia.
    With neoplasia, the increase in the number of new cells in an organ or tissue continues after the stimulus is removed.

28. Which of the following types of cells have a latent ability to regenerate?

  1. Stable
    Stable cells have a latent ability to regenerate if they are damaged or destroyed and are found in the kidney, liver, and pancreas, among other body organs.
  2. Labile
    Labile cells multiply constantly to replace cells worn out by normal physiologic processes.
  3. Permanent
    Permanent cells include neurons — the nerve cell bodies, not their axons. Destruction of a neuron causes permanent loss, but axons may regenerate.
  4. Epithelial
    Epithelial cells are a type of labile cell that multiply constantly to replace cells worn out by normal physiologic processes.

29. The relaxation techniques of progressive muscle relaxation, relaxation with guided imagery, and the Benson Relaxation Response share which of the following elements?

  1. A mental device (something on which to focus the attention)
    Similar elements also include a quiet environment, a comfortable position, and a passive attitude.
  2. Nutritional foundation
    Relaxation techniques do not encompass specific nutritional guidelines.
  3. Analgesic preparation
    Relaxation techniques are used to reduce one’s response to stress and do not require analgesia prior to practicing the techniques.
  4. Physician’s order
    A physician’s order is not required to assist an individual to learn techniques to reduce one’s response to stress.

30. Which of the following terms has been defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a group of behavioral or psychological symptoms or a pattern that manifests itself in significant distress, impaired functioning, or accentuated risk of enduring severe suffering or possible death?

  1. Mental disorder
    The definition was adopted by the American Psychiatric Association in 1994.
  2. Emotional disorder
    There is no universally accepted definition of what constitutes an emotional disorder.
  3. Anxiety
    Anxiety is defined as fear of the unknown.
  4. Schizophrenia                                                                                                                                      Schizophrenia is a specific disorder characterized by psychosis.

31. Establishing financial security has been identified as a developmental task of which of the following groups?

  1. Middle adult
    The middle adult’s tasks also include launching children, and refocusing on one’s marital relationship.
  2. Older adult
    The older adult’s tasks include adapting to retirement and declining physical stamina.
  3. Young adult
    The young adult’s tasks include establishing a lifestyle and independence.
  4. Teenager
    The teenager’s primary developmental tasks include developing an identity and intimacy.

32. When up to a 6-month period elapses between the experience of trauma and the onset of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD), the episode is termed

  1. delayed.
    In the case of delayed PTSD, there may be up to a 6-month period of time that elapses between the trauma and the manifestation of symptoms.
  2. acute.
    Acute PTSD is defined as the experience of symptoms for less than a 3-month period.
  3. chronic.
    Chronic PTSD is defined as the experience of symptoms lasting longer than 3 months.
  4. primary.
    The concept of primary disease is not used in relation to PTSD.

33. Which of the following statements accurately describes a risk factor for depression?

  1. History of physical or sexual abuse
    History of physical or sexual abuse and current substance abuse are risk factors for depression.
  2. Male gender
    A risk factor for depression is female gender.
  3. Age over 50 years
    A risk factor for depression is onset before 40 years.
  4. Negative family history of depression
    Family history of depression is a risk factor.

34. Of the following stages of grieving as described by Kubler-Ross, which is the initial?

  1. Denial
    The stages include: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.
  2. Anger
    Anger is the second stage of the process.
  3. Bargaining
    Bargaining is the third stage of the process.
  4. Depression
    Depression is the fourth stage of the process.

35. Which of the following terms refers to Leininger’s description of the learned and transmitted knowledge about values, beliefs, rules of behavior, and lifestyle practices that guide a designated group in their thinking and actions in patterned ways?

  1. Culture
    Leininger was the founder of the specialty called transcultural nursing and advocated culturally competent nursing care.
  2. Minority
    Minority refers to a group of people whose physical or cultural characteristics differ from the majority of people in a society.
  3. Race
    Race refers to a group of people distinguished by genetically transmitted characteristics.
  4. Subculture
    Subculture refers to a group that functions within a culture.

36. The inability of a person to recognize his or her own values, beliefs, and practices and those of others because of strong ethnocentric tendencies is termed

  1. cultural blindness.
    Cultural blindness results in bias and stereotyping.
  2. acculturation.
    Acculturation is the process by which members of a culture adapt or learn how to take on the behaviors of another group.
  3. cultural imposition.
    Cultural imposition is the tendency to impose one’s cultural beliefs, values, and patterns of behavior on a person from a different culture.
  4. cultural taboo.
    Cultural taboos are those activities governed by rules of behavior that are avoided, forbidden, or prohibited by a particular cultural group.

37. Which of the following groups of individuals may stare at the floor during conversations as a sign of respect?

  1. Native Americans
    Some Native Americans stare at the floor during conversations, conveying respect and indicating that the listener is paying close attention to the speaker.
  2. Indo-Chinese
    The Indo-Chinese may consider direct eye contact impolite or aggressive.
  3. Arabs
    Arabs may consider direct eye contact impolite or aggressive.
  4. Asians
    Asians may consider direct eye contact impolite or aggressive.

38. For which of the following religious groups is all meat prohibited?

  1. Hinduism
    Hinduism prohibits consumption of all meats and animal shortening.
  2. Seventh-Day Adventism
    Seventh-Day Adventism prohibits consumption of pork.
  3. Judaism
    Judaism prohibits consumption of pork.
  4. Islam
    Islam prohibits the consumption of pork and animal shortening.

39. The paradigm that explains the cause of illness as an imbalance in the forces of nature is the

  1. holistic perspective.
    The naturalist or holistic perspective believes that health exists when all aspects of a persona are in perfect balance or harmony.
  2. magico-religious view.
    The magico-religious view holds that illness is caused by forces of evil.
  3. biomedical view.
    The biomedical view holds life events as cause and effect and incorporates the bacterial or viral explanation of communicable disease.
  4. scientific view.
    The scientific view holds life events as cause and effect and incorporates the bacterial or viral explanation of communicable disease.

40. The aim of genomic medicine is

  1. improving predictions about individuals’ susceptibility to diseases
    Predictions regarding the time of their onset, their extent and eventual severity as well as which treatments or medications are likely to be most effective or harmful are the focus of genomic medicine.
  2. reproduction
    The focus of genomic medicine is broader than the reproduction of cells.
  3. cure of disease
    The focus of genomic medicine is broader than the cure of disease.
  4. cloning                                                                                                                                          Genomic medicine is gene-based health care.

41. Nondisjunction of a chromosome results in which of the following diagnoses?

  1. Down Syndrome
    When a pair of chromosomes fails to separate completely and creates a sperm or oocyte that contains two copies of a particular chromosome (nondisjunction) Down syndrome results from three number 21 chromosomes.
  2. Huntingon Disease
    Huntington disease is one example of a germ-line mutation.
  3. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy, an inherited form of muscular dystrophy, is an example of a genetic caused by structural gene mutations.
  4. Marphan Syndrome
    Marphan Syndrome is a genetic condition that may occur in a single family member as a result of spontaneous mutation.

42. Which type of Mendelian inherited condition results in both genders being affected equally in a vertical pattern?

  1. Automosomal dominant inheritance
    An individual who has an autosomal dominant inherited condition carries a gene mutation for that condition on one chromosome of a pair.
  2. Automosomal recessive inheritance
    The pattern of inheritance in autosomal recessive inherited conditions is different from that of autosomal dominant inherited conditions in that it is more horizontal than vertical, with relatives of a single generation tending to have the condition.
  3. X-linked inheritance
    X-linked conditions may be inherited in families in recessive or dominant patterns. In both, the gene mutation is located on the X-chromosome. All males inherit an X chromosome from their mother with no counterpart; hence, all males express the gene mutation.
  4. Multifactorial genetic inheritance
    Neural tube defects, such as spina bifida and anencephaly, are examples of multifactorial genetic conditions. The majority of neural tube defects are caused by both genetic and environmental influences that combine during early embryonic development leading to incomplete closure of the neural tube.

43. A specific BRCA1 cancer-predisposing gene mutation seems to occur more frequently among women of which descent?

  1. Ashkanazi Jewish
    Expression of the BRCA1 gene is an example of inheritance in the development of breast cancer.
  2. Mediterranean
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is a common enzyme abnormality that affects millions of people throughout the world, especially those of Mediterranean, South East Asian, African, Middle Eastern, and Near Eastern origin.
  3. African American
    Sickle cell anemia is associated with the African-American population.
  4. Chinese and Japanese
    Individuals of Chinese and Japanese descent who are rapid metabolizers of the enzyme N-acetyltransferase and who are prescribed the drug isoniazid (as part of treatment for tuberculosis) are at significantly increased risk for developing isoniazid-induced hepatitis.

44. Which of the following statements describes accurate information related to chronic illness?

  1. Most people with chronic conditions do not consider themselves sick or ill.
    Although some people take on a sick role identity, most people with chronic conditions do not consider themselves sick or ill and try to live as normal a life as is possible.
  2. Most people with chronic conditions take on a sick role identity.
    Research has demonstrated that some people with chronic conditions may take on a sick role identity, but they are not the majority.
  3. Chronic conditions do not result from injury.
    Chronic conditions may be due to illness, genetic factors, or injury
  4. Most chronic conditions are easily controlled.
    Many chronic conditions require therapeutic regimens to keep them under control.

45. In which phase of the trajectory model of chronic illness are the symptoms under control and managed?

  1. Stable
    The stable phase indicates that the symptoms and disability are under control or managed.
  2. Acute
    The acute phase is characterized by sudden onset of severe or unrelieved symptoms or complications that may necessitate hospitalization for their management.
  3. Comeback
    The comeback phase is the period in the trajectory marked by recovery after an acute period.
  4. Downward
    The downward phase occurs when symptoms worsen or the disability progresses despite attempts to control the course through proper management.

46. Which phase of the trajectory model of chronic illness is characterized by reactivation of the illness?

  1. Unstable
    The unstable phase is characterized by development of complications or reactivation of the illness.
  2. Stable
    The stable phase indicates that the symptoms and disability are under control or managed.
  3. Acute
    The acute phase is characterized by sudden onset of severe or unrelieved symptoms or complications that may necessitate hospitalization for their management.
  4. Comeback
    The comeback phase is the period in the trajectory marked by recovery after an acute period.

47. Which phase of the trajectory model of chronic illness is characterized by the gradual or rapid decline in the trajectory despite efforts to halt the disorder?

  1. Dying
    The dying phase is characterized by stoppage of life-maintaining functions.
  2. Unstable
    The unstable phase is characterized by development of complications or reactivation of the illness.
  3. Acute
    The acute phase is characterized by sudden onset of severe or unrelieved symptoms or complications that may necessitate hospitalization for their management.
  4. Downward
    The downward phase occurs when symptoms worsen or the disability progresses despite attempts to control the course through proper management.

48. In order to help prevent the development of an external rotation deformity of the hip in a patient who must remain in bed for any period of time, the most appropriate nursing action would be to use

  1. a trochanter roll extending from the crest of the ilium to the midthigh.
    A trochanter roll, properly placed, provides resistance to the external rotation of the hip.
  2. pillows under the lower legs.
    Pillows under the legs will not prevent the hips from rotating externally.
  3. a hip-abductor pillow.
    A hip-abductor pillow is used for the patient after total hip replacement surgery.
  4. a footboard.
    A footboard will not prevent the hips from rotating externally.

49. To prevent footdrop, the patient is positioned in:

  1. Order to keep the feet at right angles to the leg
    When the patient is supine in bed, padded splints or protective boots are used.
  2. A semi-sitting position in bed
    Semi-fowlers positioning is used to decrease the pressure of abdominal contents on the diaphragm.
  3. A sitting position with legs hanging off the side of the bed
    In order to prevent footdrop, the feet must be supported.
  4. A side-lying position
    Side-lying positions do not provide support to prevent footdrop.

50. Through which of the following activities does the patient learn to consciously contract excretory sphincters and control voiding cues?

  1. Biofeedback
    Cognitively intact patients who have stress or urge incontinence may gain bladder control through biofeedback.
  2. Kegel exercises
    Kegel exercises are pelvic floor exercises that strengthen the pubococcygeus muscle.
  3. Habit training
    Habit training is used to try to keep the patient dry by strictly adhering to a toileting schedule and may be successful with stress, urge, or functional incontinence.
  4. Bladder training                                                                                                                                         Habit training is a type of bladder training.

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