Referred pain is pain that’s felt at a site other than its origin.
Alleviating pain by performing a back massage is consistent with the gate control theory.
Romberg’s test is a test for balance or gait.
Pain seems more intense at night because the patient isn’t distracted by daily activities.
Older patients commonly don’t report pain because of fear of treatment, lifestyle changes, or dependency.
No pork or pork products are allowed in a Muslim diet.
Two goals of Healthy People 2010 are:
– Help individuals of all ages to increase the quality of life and the number of years of optimal health
– Eliminate health disparities among different segments of the population.
A community nurse is serving as a patient’s advocate if she tells av malnourished patient to go to a meal program at a local park.
If a patient isn’t following his treatment plan, the nurse should first ask why.
When a patient is ill, it’s essential for the members of his family to maintain communication about his health needs.
Ethnocentrism is the universal belief that one’s way of life is superior to others’.
When a nurse is communicating with a patient through an interpreter,v the nurse should speak to the patient and the interpreter.
In accordance with the “hot-cold” system used by some Mexicans,v Puerto Ricans, and other Hispanic and Latino groups, most foods, beverages, herbs, and drugs are described as “cold.”
Prejudice is a hostile attitude toward individuals of a particular group.
Discrimination is preferential treatment of individuals of a particular group. It’s usually discussed in a negative sense.
Increased gastric motility interferes with the absorption of oral drugs.
The three phases of the therapeutic relationship are orientation, working, and termination.
Patients often exhibit resistive and challenging behaviors in the orientation phase of the therapeutic relationship.
Abdominal assessment is performed in the following order: inspection, auscultation, palpation, and percussion.
When measuring blood pressure in a neonate, the nurse should select a cuff that’s no less than one-half and no more than two-thirds the length of the extremity that’s used.
When administering a drug by Z-track, the nurse shouldn’t use thev same needle that was used to draw the drug into the syringe because doing so could stain the skin.
Sites for intradermal injection include the inner arm, the upper chest, and on the back, under the scapula.
When evaluating whether an answer on an examination is correct, thev nurse should consider whether the action that’s described promotes autonomy (independence), safety, self-esteem, and a sense of belonging.
Veracity is truth and is an essential component of a therapeutic relationship between a health care provider and his patient.
Beneficence is the duty to do no harm and the duty to do good.v There’s an obligation in patient care to do no harm and an equal obligation to assist the patient.
Nonmaleficence is the duty to do no harm.
Frye’s ABCDE cascade provides a framework for prioritizing care by identifying the most important treatment concerns.
A = Airway. This category includes everything that affects a patentv airway, including a foreign object, fluid from an upper respiratory infection, and edema from trauma or an allergic reaction.
B = Breathing. This category includes everything that affects thev breathing pattern, including hyperventilation or hypoventilation and abnormal breathing patterns, such as Korsakoff’s, Biot’s, or Cheyne-Stokes respiration.
C = Circulation. This category includes everything that affects thev circulation, including fluid and electrolyte disturbances and disease processes that affect cardiac output.
D = Disease processes. If the patient has no problem with the airway,v breathing, or circulation, then the nurse should evaluate the disease processes, giving priority to the disease process that poses the greatest immediate risk. For example, if a patient has terminal cancer and hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia is a more immediate concern.
E = Everything else. This category includes such issues as writing anv incident report and completing the patient chart. When evaluating needs, this category is never the highest priority.
Rule utilitarianism is known as the “greatest good for the greatest number of people” theory.
Egalitarian theory emphasizes that equal access to goods and servicesv must be provided to the less fortunate by an affluent society.
Before teaching any procedure to a patient, the nurse must assess the patient’s current knowledge and willingness to learn.
Process recording is a method of evaluating one’s communication effectiveness.
When feeding an elderly patient, the nurse should limit high-carbohydrate foods because of the risk of glucose intolerance.
When feeding an elderly patient, essential foods should be given first.
Passive range of motion maintains joint mobility. Resistive exercises increase muscle mass.
Isometric exercises are performed on an extremity that’s in a cast.
A back rub is an example of the gate-control theory of pain.
Anything that’s located below the waist is considered unsterile; av sterile field becomes unsterile when it comes in contact with any unsterile item; a sterile field must be monitored continuously; and a border of 1″ (2.5 cm) around a sterile field is considered unsterile.
A “shift to the left” is evident when the number of immature cells (bands) in the blood increases to fight an infection.
A “shift to the right” is evident when the number of mature cells inv the blood increases, as seen in advanced liver disease and pernicious anemia.
Before administering preoperative medication, the nurse should ensurev that an informed consent form has been signed and attached to the patient’s record.
A nurse should spend no more than 30 minutes per 8-hour shift providing care to a patient who has a radiation implant.
A nurse shouldn’t be assigned to care for more than one patient who has a radiation implant.
Long-handled forceps and a lead-lined container should be available in the room of a patient who has a radiation implant.