• Central to all helping professions, and enables persons to create meaning in their lives.
  • Means that people, relationships, and things matter
Nursing Theories of Caring
Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory (Leininger)
  • Based on transcultural nursing model
  • Transcultural nursing: a learned branch of nursing that focuses on the comparative study & analysis of cultures as they apply to nursing and health-illness practices, beliefs, and values
  • Goal of Transcultural Nursing: to provide care that is congruent with cultural values, beliefs, and practices
  • Cultures exhibit both diversity and universality
  • Diversity – perceiving, knowing, and practicing care in different ways
  • Universality – commonalities of care
  • Fundamental Theory Aspects – culture, care, cultural care, world view, folk health or well-being systems
Theory of Bureaucratic Caring (Ray)
  • Ray’s theory focuses on caring in organizations (e.g. hospital) as cultures. The theory suggests that caring in nursing is contextual and is influenced by the organizational structure.
  • Example: ICU had a dominant value of technological caring (i.e., monitors, ventilators, treatments), Oncology unit had a value of a more intimate, spiritual caring (i.e., family focused, comforting, compassionate). Furthermore, the meaning of caring was further influenced by the role and position a person held. Staff nurses valued caring in terms of its relatedness to client, while administrator valued caring as system related.
  • Spiritual –ethical caring influences each of the aspects of the bureaucratic system (political, legal, economic,, educational, physiologic, social-cultural, and technological)
Caring, the Human Mode of Being (Roach)
  • Caring is the human mode of being, proposes that all persons are caring, and develop their caring abilities by being true to self.
  • Develop the Six C’s of Caring in Nursing:

Six C’s of Caring in Nursing


  • Awareness of one’s relationship to others, sharing their joys, sorrows, pain, and accomplishments. Participation in the experience of another


  • Having the knowledge, judgment, skills, energy, experience, and motivation to respond adequately to others within the demands of professional responsibilities.


  • The quality that fosters trusting relationships. Comfort with self, client, and family.


  • Morals, ethics, and an informed sense of right and wrong. Awareness of personal responsibility.


  • Convergence between one’s desires and obligations and the deliberate choice to act in accordance with them.


  • Appropriate bearing, demeanor, dress, and language, that is in harmony with a caring presence. Presenting oneself as someone who respects others and demands respect.
Nursing as Caring (Boykin and Schoenhofer)
  • Suggests that the purpose of the discipline and profession of nursing is to know persons and nurture them as persons living in caring and growing in caring.
  • Similar to Roach idea that all persons are caring.
  • Caring in nursing is “an altruistic, active expression of love, and is the intentional and embodied recognition of value and connectedness”.
Theory of Human Care (Watson)
  • Human caring in nursing is not just an emotion, concern, attitude, or benevolent desire. Caring is a moral ideal of nursing whereby the end is protection, enhancement, and preservation of human dignity.
Theory of Caring (Swanson)
  • Caring involves 5 processes:
Process  Definition  Sub dimensions
Knowing Striving to understand an event as it has meaning in life of the other
  • Avoiding assumptions
  • Centering on the one cared
  • Assessing thoroughly
  • Seeing cues
  • Engaging the self of both
Being With Being emotionally present to other
  • Being there
  • Conveying ability
  • Sharing feelings
  • Not burdening
Doing For Doing for the other as he/she would do for the self if it were at all possible
  • Comforting
  • Anticipating
  • Performing
  • Competently/skillful
  • Protecting
  • Preserving dignity
Enabling Facilitating the other’s passage through life transitions and unfamiliar events
  • Informing/explaining
  • Supporting/allowing
  • Focusing
  • Generating
  • Alternative/thinking it through
  • Validating/giving feedback
Maintaining belief Sustaining faith in the other’s capacity to get through an event or transition and face a future meaning
  • Believing in/ holding in esteem
  • Maintaining a hope-filled attitude
  • Offering realistic optimism
  • “Going the distance”
The Primacy of Caring (Benner and Wrubel)
  • Caring is central to the essence of nursing. Caring creates the possibilities for coping and creates possibilities for connecting with and concern for others.
Caring for Self

Caring for self means taking the time to nurture oneself. This involves initiating and maintaining behaviors that promote healthy living and well-being.

  • A balanced diet
  • Regular exercise
  • Adequate rest and sleep
  • Recreational Activities
  • Meditation and prayer


Welcome to your Caring in Nursing Practice Exam! This exam is carefully curated to help you consolidate your knowledge and gain deeper understanding on the topic.


Exam Details

  • Number of Questions: 8 items
  • Mode: Practice Mode

Exam Instructions

  1. Practice Mode: This mode aims to facilitate effective learning and review.
  2. Instant Feedback: After each question, the correct answer along with an explanation will be revealed. This is to help you understand the reasoning behind the correct answer, helping to reinforce your learning.
  3. Time Limit: There is no time limit for this exam. Take your time to understand each question and the corresponding choices.

Tips For Success

  • Read each question carefully. Take your time and don't rush.
  • Understand the rationale behind each answer. This will not only help you during this exam, but also assist in reinforcing your learning.
  • Don't be discouraged by incorrect answers. Use them as an opportunity to learn and improve.
  • Take breaks if you need them. It's not a race, and your understanding is what's most important.
  • Keep a positive attitude and believe in your ability to succeed.

Remember, this exam is not just a test of your knowledge, but also an opportunity to enhance your understanding and skills. Enjoy the learning journey!


Click 'Start Exam' when you're ready to begin. Best of luck!

💡 Hint

Focus on the aspect of the theory that addresses understanding and integrating cultural differences in care practices.

1 / 8

1. Nurse Gomez is exploring various theories of caring to better tailor his approach to the diverse needs of his clients. He is particularly interested in adopting Leininger’s theory. During a team meeting, he explains a key element of this theory to his colleagues. What does he highlight as a fundamental aspect of Leininger’s theory?

💡 Hint

Think about which activity empowers the patient by enhancing his ability to manage his own care.

2 / 8

2. Nurse Green has decided to implement Swanson’s concepts of caring while assisting Mr. Thompson, a 65-year-old diabetic patient. Nurse Green wants to exemplify the "enabling" aspect of Swanson's caring theory in her nursing practice. Which of the following activities best represents this concept?

💡 Hint

Consider which option involves direct, hands-on guidance that could enhance skill and understanding in a practical setting.

3 / 8

3. Nurse Thompson, a nurse manager, is concerned about the quality of hygienic care provided by one of her staff members, especially for older adult clients. She wants to ensure improvement in the care delivered. What should Nurse Thompson do to effectively enhance the staff member's performance in providing hygienic care?

💡 Hint

Focus on which action forms the foundation for effective communication and personalized care.

4 / 8

4. During a mentoring session with nursing students, Nurse Ramirez emphasizes the importance of truly understanding their patients to provide the best care. She discusses the most crucial aspect a student nurse should focus on to deeply know their clients. Which of these is most vital for a student nurse to learn?

💡 Hint

Consider which aspect of caring involves the nurse being directly involved and available to the patient.

5 / 8

5. In a nursing conference presentation, Nurse Carter discusses Riemen’s 1986 study on caring behaviors in nursing. The study explored how male and female patients perceive nurses' caring behaviors. What did both groups similarly identify as a key aspect of caring?

💡 Hint

Think about which action best protects the patient’s dignity and privacy.

6 / 8

6. In a training workshop on professionalism and caring in nursing, Nurse Edwards uses practical examples to illustrate how caring behaviors can be effectively demonstrated in everyday nursing tasks. She asks the trainees to identify which action best shows caring during a patient's bath. Which behavior reflects a caring approach?

💡 Hint

Think about the deeper connection between nurse and patient, beyond just technical skills or routines.

7 / 8

7. During a staff development meeting, Nurse Patel discusses the essence of caring in nursing as defined by theorist Patricia Benner. She presents this concept to help new nurses understand how to integrate caring into their practice. According to Benner, caring is described as:

💡 Hint

Consider which option aligns with both patient safety and the professional development of a new nurse.

8 / 8

8. Nurse Anderson, a recent graduate, aims to show genuine care for Mrs. Ellis, a 58-year-old patient needing a new treatment. What action by Nurse Anderson would best demonstrate caring and professional behavior in this situation?