Leavell and Clark’s Three Levels of Prevention

Primary Prevention
  • Seeks to prevent a disease or condition at a prepathologic state; to stop something from ever happening.
Health Promotion
  • health education
  • marriage counseling
  • genetic screening
  • good standard of nutrition adjusted to developmental phase of life
Specific Protection
  • use of specific immunization
  • attention to personal hygiene
  • use of environmental sanitation
  • protection against occupational hazards
  • protection from accidents
  • use of specific nutrients
  • protections from carcinogens
  • avoidance to allergens
Secondary Prevention
  • Also known as “Health Maintenance”. Seeks to identify specific illnesses or conditions at an early stage with prompt intervention to prevent or limit disability; to prevent catastrophic effects that could occur if proper attention and treatment are not provided
Early Diagnosis and Prompt Treatment
  • case finding measures
  • individual and mass screening survey
  • prevent spread of communicable disease
  • prevent complication and sequelae
  • shorten period of disability
Disability Limitations
  • Adequate treatment to arrest disease process and prevent further complication and sequelae.
  • Provision of facilities to limit disability and prevent death.
Tertiary Prevention
  • Occurs after a disease or disability has occurred and the recovery process has begun; Intent is to halt the disease or injury process and assist the person in obtaining an optimal health status. To establish a high-level wellness. “To maximize use of remaining capacities’
Restoration and Rehabilitation
  • Work therapy in hospital
  • Use of shelter colony