Theorists consider that emotional, social, cognitive and moral skills develop in stages.
- Psychosocial – Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is most widely used. At each stage, children confront a crisis that requires the integration of personal needs and skills with social and cultural expectations. Each stage has two possible components, favorable and unfavorable.
- Psychosexual – Sigmund Freud considered sexual instincts to be significant in the development of personality. At each stage, regions of the body assume prominent psychologic significance as source of pleasure.
- Cognitive – Jean Piaget proposed four major stages of development for logical thinking. Each stage arises from and builds on the previous stage in an orderly fashion.
- Moral – Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is based on cognitive development and consists of three major levels, each containing two stages.
(birth to 1 year)
|Trust vs. mistrust||Oral||Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years)|
(1-3 years old)
|Autonomy vs. same and doubt||Anal||Sensorimotor (1-2 years); preoperational (preconceptual) (2-4 years)||Preconventional|
(3-6 years old)
|Initiative vs. guilt||Phallic||Preoperational (preconceptual) (2-4 years); preoperational (intuitive) (4-7 years)||Preconventional|
|Industry vs. inferiority||Latency||Concrete operations
|Identity vs. role diffusion (confusion)||Genital||Formal operations
Source: Lippincott’s Review Series