Human Growth and Development

Definition

The term growth and development both refers to dynamic process. Often used interchangeably, these terms have different meanings. Growth and development are interdependent, interrelated process. Growth generally takes place during the first 20 years of life.; development continues after that.

Growth:
  1. Is physical change and increase in size.
  2. It can be measured quantitatively.
  3. Indicators of growth includes height, weight, bone size, and dentition.
  4. Growth rates vary during different stages of growth and development.
  5. The growth rate is rapid during the prenatal, neonatal, infancy and adolescent stages and slows during childhood.
  6. Physical growth is minimal during adulthood.

Human Growth and Development

Development:
  1. Is an increase in the complexity of function and skill progression.
  2. It is the capacity and skill of a person to adapt to the environment.
  3. Development is the behavioral aspect of growth
 Freud’s Psychosexual Development Theory

STAGE

AGE

CHARACTERISTICS

1. Oral

Birth to 1½ y/o

Center of pleasure: mouth (major source of gratification & exploration)

Primary need: Security

Major conflict: weaning

2. Anal

1½ to 3 y/o

Source of pleasure: anus & bladder (sensual satisfaction & self-control)

Major conflict: toilet training

3. Phallic

4 to 6 y/o

Center of pleasure: child’s genital (masturbation)

Major conflict: Oedipus & Electra Complex

4. Latency

6 y/o to puberty

Energy directed to physical & intellectual activities

Sexual impulses repressed

Relationship between peers of same sex

5. Genital

Puberty onwards

Energy directed towards full sexual maturity & function & development of skills to cope with the environment
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Theory

STAGE

AGE

CENTRAL TASK

(+) RESOLUTION

(-) RESOLUTION

1. Infancy

Birth-18 mos

Trust vs Mistrust

Learn to trust others Mistrust, withdrawal, estrangement
2. Early childhood

1½ to 3 y/o

Autonomy vs Shame & doubt

Self control w/o loss of self esteem

Ability of cooperate & express oneself

Compulsive, self-restraint or compliance.

Willfulness & defiance.

3. Late childhood

3 to 5 y/o

Initiative vs guilt

Learns to become assertive

Ability to evaluate one’s own behavior

Lack of self-confidence.

Pessimism, fear of wrongdoing.

Over-control & over-restriction.

4. School Age

6 to 12 y/o

Industry vs Inferiority

Learns to create, develop & manipulate.

Develop sense of competence & perseverance.

Loss of hope, sense of being mediocre.

Withdrawal from school & peers.

5. Adolescence

12–20 y/o

Identity vs role confusion

Coherent sense of self.

Plans to actualize one’s abilities

Feelings of confusion, indecisiveness, & possible anti-social behavior.
6. Young Adulthood

18-25 y/o

Intimacy vs isolation

Intimate relationship with another person.

Commitment to work and relationships.

Impersonal relationships.

Avoidance of relationship, career or lifestyle commitments.

7. Adulthood

25-65 y/o

Generativity vs stagnation

Creativity, productivity, concern for others. Self-indulgence, self-concern, lack of interests & commitments.
8. Maturity

65 y/o to death

Integrity vs despair

Acceptance of worth & uniqueness of one’s own life.

Acceptance of death.

Sense of loss, contempt for others.
Havighurst’s Developmental Stage and Tasks

DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE

DEVELOPMENTAL TASK

1. Infancy & early childhood
  • eat solid foods
  • walk
  • talk
  • control elimination of wastes
  • relate emotionally to others
  • distinguish right from wrong through development of a conscience
  • learn sex differences and sexual modesty
  • achieve personal independence
  • form simple concepts of social & physical reality
2. Middle childhood
  • learn physical skills, required for games
  • build healthy attitudes towards oneself
  • learn to socialize with peers
  • learn appropriate masculine or feminine role
  • gain basic reading, writing & mathematical skills
  • develop concepts necessary for everyday living
  • formulate a conscience based on a value system
  • achieve personal independence
  • develop attitudes toward social groups & institutions
3. Adolescence
  • establish more mature relationships with same-age individuals of both sexes
  • achieve a masculine or feminine social role
  • accept own body
  • establish emotional independence from parents
  • achieve assurance of economic independence
  • prepare for an occupation
  • prepare for marriage & establishment of a family
  • acquire skills necessary to fulfill civic responsibilities
  • develop a set of values that guides behavior
4. Early Adulthood
  • select a partner
  • learn to live with a partner
  • start a family
  • manage a home
  • establish self in a career/occupation
  • assume civic responsibilities
  • become part of a social group
5. Middle Adulthood
  • fulfill civic & social responsibilities
  • maintain an economic standard of living
  • assist adolescent children to become responsible, happy adults
  • relate one’s partner
  • adjust to physiological changes
  • adjust to aging parents
6. Later Maturity
  • – adjust to physiological changes & alterations in health status
  • – adjust to retirement & altered income
  • – adjust to death of spouse
  • – develop affiliation with one’s age group
  • – meet civic & social responsibilities
  • – establish satisfactory living arrangements
Levinson’s Seasons of Adulthood

AGE

SEASON

CHARACTERISTICS

18-20 yrs

Early adult transition

Seeks independence by separating from family

21-27 yrs

Entrance into the adult world

Experiments with different careers & lifestyles

28-32 yrs

Transition

Makes lifestyle adjustments

33-39 yrs

Settling down

Experiences greater stability

45-65 yrs

Pay-off years

Is self-directed & engages in self-evaluation
Sullivan’s Interpersonal Model of Personality Development

STAGE

AGE

DESCRIPTION

1. Infancy

Birth to 1½ yrs

Infant learns to rely on caregivers to meet needs & desires
2. Childhood

1½ to 6 yrs

Child begins learning to delay immediate gratification of needs & desires
3. Juvenile

6 to 9 yrs

Child forms fulfilling peer relationships
4. Preadolescence

9 to 12 yrs

Child relates successfully to same-sex peers
5. Early Adolescence

12 to 14 yrs

Adolescent learns to be independent & forms relationships with members of opposite sex
6. Late Adolescence

14 to 21 yrs

Person establishes an intimate, long-lasting relationship with someone of the opposite sex
Piaget’s Phases of Cognitive Development

PHASE

AGE

DESCRIPTION

a. Sensorimotor Birth to 2 yrs Sensory organs & muscles become more functional
Stage 1: Use of reflexes Birth to 1 month Movements are primarily reflexive
Stage 2: Primary circular reaction 1-4 months Perceptions center around one’s body.

Objects are perceived as extensions of the self.

Stage 3: Secondary circular reaction 4-8 months Becomes aware of external environment.

Initiates acts to change the movement.

Stage 4: Coordination of secondary schemata 8-12 months Differentiates goals and goal-directed activities.
Stage 5: Tertiary circular reaction 12-18 months Experiments with methods to reach goals.

Develops rituals that become significant.

Stage 6: Invention of new means 18-24 months Uses mental imagery to understand the environment.

Uses fantasy.

b. Pre-operational 2-7 years Emerging ability to think
Pre-conceptual stage 2-4 year Thinking tends to be egocentric.

Exhibits use of symbolism.

Intuitive stage 4-7 years Unable to break down a whole into separate parts.

Able to classify objects according to one trait.

c. Concrete Operations 7-11 years Learns to reason about events in the here-and-now.
d. Formal Operations 11+ years Able to see relationships and to reason in the abstract.
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development

LEVEL AND STAGE

DESCRIPTION

LEVEL I: Pre-conventional Authority figures are obeyed.
(Birth to 9 years) Misbehavior is viewed in terms of damage done.
Stage 1: Punishment & obedience orientation A deed is perceived as “wrong” if one is punished; the activity is “right” if one is not punished.
Stage 2: Instrumental-relativist orientation “Right” is defined as that which is acceptable to & approved by the self.

When actions satisfy one’s needs, they are “right.”

LEVEL II: Conventional Cordial interpersonal relationships are maintained.
(9-13 years) Approval of others is sought through one’s actions.
Stage 3: Interpersonal concordance Authority is respected.
Stage 4: Law and order orientation Individual feels “duty bound” to maintain social order.

Behavior is “right” when it conforms to the rules.

LEVEL III: Post-conventional Individual understands the morality of having democratically established laws.
(13+ years)
Stage 5: Social contract orientation It is “wrong” to violate others’ rights.
Stage 6: Universal ethics orientation The person understands the principles of human rights & personal conscience.

Person believes that trust is basis for relationships.

Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development

LEVEL

CHARACTERISTICS

I. Orientation of Individual Survival Transition Concentrates on what is best for self.

Selfish.

Dependent on others.

Transition 1: From Selfishness to Responsibility Recognizes connections to others.

Makes responsible choices in terms of self and others.

II. Goodness as Self-sacrifice Puts needs of others ahead of own.

Feels responsible for others.

Is dependent.

May use guilt to manipulate others when attempting to “help.”

Transition 2: From Goodness to Truth Decisions based on intentions & consequences, not on others’ responses.

Considers needs of self and others.

Wants to help others while being responsible to self.

Increased social participation.

III. Morality of Nonviolence Sees self and others as morally equal

Assumes responsibilities for own decisions.

Basic tenet to hurt no one including self.

Conflict between selfishness and selflessness.

Self-judgment is not dependent on others’ perceptions but rather on consequences & intentions of actions.

Fowler’s Stages of Faith

STAGE

AGE

CHARACTERISTICS

Pre-stage: Undifferentiated faith

Infant

Trust, hope and love compete with environmental inconsistencies or threats if abandonment.
Stage 1: Intuitive-projective faith

Toddler-preschooler

Imitates parental behaviors and attitudes about religion and spirituality.

Has no real understanding of spiritual concepts.

Stage 2: Mythical-literal faith

School-aged child

Accepts existence of a deity.

Religious & moral beliefs are symbolized by stories.

Appreciates others’ viewpoints.

Accepts concept of reciprocal fairness.

Stage 3: Synthetic-conventional faith

Adolescent

Questions values & religious beliefs in an attempt to form own identity.
Stage 4: Individuative-reflective faith

Late adolescent & young adult

Assumes responsibility for own attitudes & beliefs.
Stage 5: Conjunctive faith

Adult

Integrates other perspectives about faith into own definition of truth.
Stage 6: Universalizing faith

Adult

Makes concepts of love & justice tangible.
Announcement!! Our hottest nursing game is out now in the App Store. Many nurses are playing now!LEARN MORE
+