Leopold’s Maneuver Practice Exam

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1. You performed Leopold’s maneuver and found the following: breech presentation. fetal back at the right side of the mother. Based on these findings. you can hear the fetal heart beat (PMI) BEST in which location?

  1. Left lower quadrant
  2. Right lower quadrant
  3. Left upper quadrant
  4. Right upper quadrant

2. In Leopold’s maneuver step #1. you palpated a soft. broad mass that moves with the rest of the mass. The correct interpretation of this finding is:

  1. The mass palpated at the fundal part is the head part.
  2. The presentation is breech.
  3. The mass palpated is the back
  4. The mass palpated is the buttocks.

3. In Leopold’s maneuver step # 3 you palpated a hard round movable mass at the supra pubic area. The correct interpretation is that the mass palpated is:

  1. The buttocks because the presentation is breech.
  2. The mass palpated is the head.
  3. The mass is the fetal back.
  4. The mass palpated is the small fetal part

4. The hormone responsible for a positive pregnancy test is:

  1. Estrogen
  2. Progesterone
  3. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
  4. Follicle Stimulating Hormone

5. The hormone responsible for the maturation of the Graafian follicle is:

  1. Follicle stimulating hormone
  2. Progesterone
  3. Estrogen
  4. Luteinizing hormone

6. The most common normal position of the fetus in utero is:

  1. Transverse position
  2. Vertical position
  3. Oblique position
  4. None of the above

7. In the later part of the 3rd trimester. the mother may experience shortness of breath. This complaint maybe explained as:

  1. A normal occurrence in pregnancy because the fetus is using more oxygen
  2. The fundus of the uterus is high pushing the diaphragm upwards
  3. The woman is having allergic reaction to the pregnancy and its hormones
  4. The woman maybe experiencing complication of pregnancy

8. Which of the following findings in a woman would be consistent with a pregnancy of two months duration?

  1. Weight gain of 6-10 lbs. And the presence of striae gravidarum
  2. Fullness of the breast and urinary frequency
  3. Braxton Hicks contractions and quickening
  4. Increased respiratory rate and ballottement

9. Which of the following is a positive sign of pregnancy?

  1. Fetal movement felt by mother
  2. Enlargement of the uterus
  3. (+) pregnancy test
  4. (+) ultrasound

10. What event occurring in the second trimester helps the expectant mother to accept the pregnancy?

  1. Lightening
  2. Ballotment
  3. Pseudocyesis
  4. Quickening
Answers & Rationales

1. B. Right lower quadrant. The landmark to look for when looking for PMI is the location of the fetal back in relation to the right or left side of the mother and the presentation. whether cephalic or breech. The best site is the fetal back nearest the head.

2. D. The mass palpated is the buttocks. The palpated mass is the fetal buttocks since it is broad and soft and moves with the rest of the mass.

3. B. The mass palpated is the head. When the mass palpated is hard round and movable. it is the fetal head.

4. C. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is the hormone secreted by the chorionic villi which is the precursor of the placenta. In the early stage of pregnancy. while the placenta is not yet fully developed. the major hormone that sustains the pregnancy is HCG.

5. A. Follicle stimulating hormone. The hormone that stimulates the maturation if the of the graafian follicle is the Follicle Stimulating Hormone which is released by the anterior pituitary gland.

6. B. Vertical position. Vertical position means the fetal spine is parallel to the maternal spine thus making it easy for the fetus to go out the birth canal.Options A and C: If transverse or oblique. the fetus can’t be delivered normally per vagina.

7. B. The fundus of the uterus is high pushing the diaphragm upwards. From the 32nd week of the pregnancy. the fundus of the enlarged uterus is pushing the respiratory diaphragm upwards. Thus. the lungs have reduced space for expansion consequently reducing the oxygen supply.

8. B. Fullness of the breast and urinary frequency. The fullness of the breast is due to the increased amount of progesterone in pregnancy. The urinary frequency is caused by the compression of the urinary bladder by the gravid uterus which is still within the pelvic cavity during the first trimester.

9. D. (+) ultrasound. A positive ultrasound will confirm that a woman is pregnant since the fetus in utero is directly visualized.

10. D. Quickening. Quickening is the first fetal movement felt by the mother makes the woman realize that she is truly pregnant. In early pregnancy. the fetus is moving but too weak to be felt by the mother. In the 18th-20th week of gestation. the fetal movements become stronger thus the mother already feels the movements.