Theoretical Framework of Nursing Practice

Nursing
  • As by the INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF NURSES (ICN, 1973) as written by Virginia Henderson: The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health. Its recovery, or to a peaceful death that the client would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge.
  • Help the client gain independence as rapidly as possible.
Conceptual and Theoretical Models of Nursing Practice
Theorist
 
Description
 FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE
  • Developed the first theory of nursing.
  • Focused on changing and manipulating the environment in order to put the patient in the best possible conditions for nature to act.
 HILDEGARD PEPLAU
  • Introduced the Interpersonal Model.
  • She defined nursing as a therapeutic, interpersonal process which strives to develop a nurse-patient relationship in which the nurse serves as a resource person, counselor and surrogate.
 FAYE ABDELLAH
  •  Defined nursing as having a problem-solving approach, with key nursing problems related to health needs of people; developed list 21 nursing problem areas
 IDA JEAN ORLANDO
  •  Developed the three elements – client behavior, nurse reaction and nurse action – compose the nursing situation. She observed that the nurse provide direct assistance to meet an immediate need for help in order to avoid or to alleviate distress or helplessness.
 MYRA LEVINE
  •  Described the Four Conservation Principles.
    1. conservation of energy
    2. conservation of structured integrity
    3. conservation of personal integrity
    4. conservation of social integrity
 DOROTHY JOHNSON
  •  Developed the Behavioral System Model.
    1. Patient’s behavior as a system that is a whole with interacting parts
    2. how the client adapts to illness
    3. Goal of nursing is to reduce so that the client can move more easily through recovery.
 MARTHA ROGERS
  •  Conceptualized the Science of Unitary Human Beings. She asserted that human beings are more than different from the sum of their parts; the distinctive properties of the whole are significantly different from those of its parts.
 DOROTHEA OREM
  • Emphasizes the client’s self care needs; nursing care becomes necessary when client is unable to fulfill biological, psychological, developmental or social needs.
 IMOGENE KING
  • Nursing process is defined as dynamic interpersonal process between nurse, client and health care system.
 BETTY NEUMAN
  • Stress reduction is a goal of system model of nursing practice. Nursing actions are in primary, secondary or tertiary level of prevention
 SISTER CALLISTA ROY
  •  Presented the Adaptation Model. She viewed each person as a unified bio-psychosocial system in constant interaction with a changing environment. The goal of nursing is to help the person adapt to changes in physiological needs, self-concept, role function and interdependent relations during health and illness.
 LYDIA HALL
  •  Introduced the notion that nursing centers around three components: person (core), pathologic state and treatment (cure) and body(care).

JEAN WATSON
  • Conceptualized the Human Caring Model. She emphasized that nursing is the application of the art and human science through transpersonal caring transactions to help persons achieve mind-body-soul harmony, which generates self-knowledge, self-control, self-care and self-healing.

ROSEMARIE RIZZO PARSE
  • Introduced the Theory of Human Becoming. She emphasized free choice of personal meaning in relating to value priorities, co-creating of rhythmical patterns, in exchange with the environment and contranscending in many dimensions as possibilities unfold.
 MADELEINE LENINGER
  • Developed the Transcultural Nursing Model. She advocated that nursing is a humanistic and scientific mode of helping a client through specific cultural caring processes (cultural values, beliefs and practices) to improve or maintain a health condition
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